Indigenous peoples in Cameroon
Among Cameroon’s more than 20 million inhabitants, some communities self-identify as indigenous. These include the hunter/gatherer Pygmies, the Mbororo pastoralists and the Kirdi mountain communities.
Together the Pygmies represent around 0.4% of the total population of Cameroon. They can be further divided into three sub-groups, namely, around 24,000 Bagyeli or Bakola, more than 40,000 Baka and around 1,500 Bedzan. These communities live along the forested borders with Gabon, the Republic of Congo and the Central African Republic.
The Mbororo living in Cameroon are estimated to number over 1 million people and they make up approx. 12% of the population. The Mbororo live primarily along the borders with Nigeria, Chad and the Central African Republic. Three groups of Mbororo are found in Cameroon: the Wodaabe in the Northern Region of Cameroon; the Jafun, who live primarily in the North West, West, Adamawa and Eastern Regions; and the Galegi, popularly known as the Aku, who live in the East, Adamawa, West and North-West Regions.
The Kirdi communities live high up in the Mandara Mountain range, in the north of Cameroon. Their precise number is not known.
Constitutional Recognition of Indigenous Peoples
The Constitution of the Republic of Cameroon uses the word “indigenous”; however, it is not clear to whom it can be applied. The country has adopted a Plan for the Development of the “Pygmy” Peoples within the context of its Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. A Plan for Indigenous and Vulnerable Peoples has also been developed in the context of the oil pipeline carrying Chadian oil to the Cameroonian port of Kribi.
Cameroon voted in favour of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in 2007 but has not ratified ILO Convention 169.