Indigenous peoples in India
In India, 461 ethnic groups are recognized as Scheduled Tribes. These are considered to be India’s indigenous peoples.
In mainland India, the Scheduled Tribes are usually referred to as Adivasis. With an estimated population of 84.3 million, they comprise 8.2% of the total population. There are, however, many more ethnic groups that would qualify for Scheduled Tribe status but which are not officially recognized. Estimates of the total number of tribal groups are as high as 635.
The largest concentrations of indigenous peoples are found in the seven states of north-east India, and the so-called “central tribal belt” stretching from Rajasthan to West Bengal.
India has a long history of indigenous peoples’ movements aimed at asserting their rights.
Legislation Concerning Indigenous Peoples
India has several laws and constitutional provisions, such as the Fifth Schedule for mainland India and the Sixth Schedule for certain areas of north-east India, which recognize indigenous peoples’ rights to land and self-governance. The laws aimed at protecting indigenous peoples have, however, numerous shortcomings and their implementation is far from satisfactory.