Indigenous peoples in the Philippines
The latest census conducted in the Philippines in 2010 included an ethnicity variable for the first time but no official figure for the indigenous peoples has yet come out. The country’s indigenous population thus continues to be estimated at between 10% and 20% of the national population, which has been projected to currently lie at 102.9 million.
The indigenous groups in the northern mountains of Luzon (Cordillera) are collectively known as Igorot while the groups on the southern island of Mindanao are collectively called Lumad. There are smaller groups collectively known as Mangyan in the central islands as well as even smaller, more scattered, groups in the central islands and Luzon.
Situation of indigenous peoples in the Philippines
Indigenous peoples in the Philippines generally live in geographically isolated areas with a lack of access to basic social services and few opportunities for mainstream economic activities or political participation. They are the people with the least education and the least meaningful political representation. In contrast, commercially valuable natural resources such as minerals, timber and water are concentrated in their areas, making them continuously vulnerable to development aggression from both private and public extractive industries.
Legislation Concerning Indigenous Peoples
Republic Act 8371, known as the Indigenous Peoples’ Rights Act (IPRA), was promulgated in 1997. The law has been lauded for its support for respect for indigenous peoples’ cultural integrity, right to their lands and right to self-directed development of these lands. More substantial implementation of the law is still being sought, however, apart from there being fundamental criticism of the law itself.
The UNDRIP and ILO Convention 169
The Philippines voted in favor of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) but the government has not yet ratified ILO Convention 169.