• Indigenous peoples in Algeria

    Indigenous peoples in Algeria

    The Amazigh are the Indigenous Peoples of Algeria that has adopted the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Still, the Indigenous status of the Amazigh is not recognised by the Algerian government, and they continue to face a number of challenges.

The Indigenous World 2022: Algeria

The Amazigh are the Indigenous people of Algeria and other countries of North Africa. However, the Algerian government does not recognise the Indigenous status of the Amazigh and refuses to publish statistics on their population. Because of this, there is no official data on the number of Amazigh in Algeria.

On the basis of demographic data drawn from the territories in which Tamazight-speaking populations live, associations defending and promoting the rights of Amazigh people estimate the Tamazight-speaking population to be around 12 million people, or one-third of Algeria’s total population. The Amazigh of Algeria are concentrated in five territories: Kabylia in the north-east (Kabyls represent around 50% of Algeria’s Amazigh population), Aurès in the east, Chenoua, a mountainous region on the Mediterranean coast to the west of Algiers, M'zab in the south (Taghardayt), and Tuareg territory in the Sahara (Tamanrasset, Adrar, Djanet). Many small Amazigh communities also exist in the south-west (Tlemcen, Bechar, etc.) and in other places scattered throughout the country. It is also important to note that large cities such as Algiers, Oran, Constantine, etc., are home to several hundred thousand people who are historically and culturally Amazigh but who have been partly Arabised over the years, succumbing to a gradual process of acculturation and assimilation.

The Indigenous populations can primarily be distinguished from Arab inhabitants by their language (Tamazight) but also by their way of life and their culture (clothes, food, songs and dances, beliefs, etc.). After decades of demands and popular struggles, the Amazigh language was finally recognised as a “national and official language” in Algeria’s Constitution in 2016. But, in practice, the Amazigh identity continues to be marginalised and folklorised by State institutions. Officially, Algeria is still presented as an “Arab country” and “land of Islam”, and anti-Amazigh laws are still in force (such as the 1992 Law on Arabisation).

Internationally, Algeria has ratified the main international standards, and it voted in favour of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in 2007. However these texts remain unknown to the vast majority of citizens and thus not applied, which has led to the UN treaty-monitoring bodies making numerous observations and recommendations to Algeria urging it to meet its international commitments.


New administrative and legislative measures threaten rights and freedoms

On 25 April 2021, the Algerian Ministry of National Defence issued a statement[1] in which it noted that its security services had “dismantled a criminal cell composed of supporters of the ‘MAK’ separatist movement, involved in planning attacks and criminal acts.” The statement added that the Algerian army had proceeded to “seize weapons of war and explosives intended for the execution of criminal plans” and unveiled “a dangerous conspiracy targeting the country, fomented by said movement”, some of whose members were likely to have “benefited from combat training abroad with the funding and support of foreign countries.”

As proof of its allegations, the Algerian ministry presented a young man on television who claimed, without any evidence, to be a supplier of weapons to the Movement for the Self-Determination of Kabylia (MAK).[2] Reacting to these serious accusations from the Algerian Ministry of Defence, MAK’s President declared on 26 April 2021[3] that it was an “outright lie”, specifying that his movement “is of a peaceful nature” and that it is based “on the right of peoples to self-determination and not on any recourse to violence.”

In fact, since its creation in 2001, MAK has never committed any act of violence and has always used peaceful means. No member of this movement has been arrested for possession of weapons of war and no-one has been prosecuted through the Algerian courts for this reason.

On 18 May 2021, the High Security Council (HCS), chaired by the Algerian Head of State, decided to place both the Rachad and MAK movements on the list of terrorist organisations and treat them as such. The HCS does not, however, have the authority to take such a decision because it is purely an advisory body (Article 197 of the Constitution). Moreover, the Movement for the Self-Determination of Kabylia, which has existed for more than 20 years, has always carried out its activities in a democratic and peaceful manner and condemns all use of violence.

On 30 May 2021, the President of the Algerian Republic, Mr. Abdelmadjid Tebboune, adopted Ordinance No. 21-08 in the Council of Ministers, amending and supplementing Ordinance No. 66-156 of 8 June 1966 on the Criminal Code. The amendments relate to the suppression of terrorist acts. This Ordinance came into effect on 9 June 2021.[4] This text has not been subjected to any parliamentary debate given that the President dissolved the National Assembly on 1 March 2021.

The amendments to the Criminal Code broaden the definition of the crime of terrorism, allowing the authorities to label any citizen critical of government action a “terrorist”. Indeed, Article 2 of Ordinance No. 21-08 introduces two additional paragraphs to Article 87(a) of the Criminal Code, which state that:

– the following shall be considered a terrorist act or act of sabotage: any act aimed at the security of the State, national unity or the stability and normal functioning of institutions that is:   

 ̶  working for or inciting, by any means, access to power or to a change in the system of governance through non-constitutional means;     

 ̶  undermining or threatening the integrity of the national territory by any means.

In 2018, and therefore well before this reform of the Criminal Code, the Human Rights Committee pointed out that this definition of “terrorism” could allow for the “prosecution of behaviour that falls under the exercise of freedom of expression or peaceful assembly.” In fact, in both 2019 and 2020, the Algerian authorities arrested and sentenced Amazigh to both fines and imprisonment for bearing the Amazigh flag, accusing them of “undermining national unity”. It is for the same reason that Lounès Hamzi, a defender of Kabylia’s right to self-determination, has been held in pre-trial custody since 7 October 2020.

Although the Criminal Code was already vague in its definition of terrorism, the new provisions introduced in 2021 only exacerbate this further, giving the authorities the right to curtail freedom of expression and peaceful action.

Legislative elections took place in Algeria on 12 June 2021. Due to the repression, the participation rate was 23% nationwide and less than 1% in Amazigh territories such as Kabylia.[5]

Political parties, associations and international organisations have all denounced the serious deterioration in human rights and the attacks on democratic principles in Algeria. Amnesty International has noted that: “Since April 2021, the Algerian authorities have increasingly used accusations of ‘terrorism’ or ‘plotting against the state’ to prosecute human rights defenders. Algeria has labelled two organisations that express dissenting views as ‘terrorist’ organisations: the opposition movement Rachad and the Movement for the Self-Determination of Kabylia (MAK).”[6] MENA Rights Group believes that “the provisions of Ordinance No. 21-08 of 8 June 2021, amending and supplementing Ordinance No. 66-156 of 8 June 1966 on the Criminal Code, are incompatible with several articles of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, in particular Article 14 concerning the right to be presumed innocent.”[7] This NGO has called on the Algerian authorities “to review criminal legislation so that measures to combat terrorism are in line with the principles of legality, necessity and proportionality.” In June 2021, on the occasion of the 47th session of the UN Human Rights Council (HRC), 82 Algerian and international associations and NGOs called on this body’s Member States to act against the repression being exercised by the Algerian authorities against civil society organisations and democratic forces in Algeria. These associations and NGOs urged the members of the HRC to “Condemn the escalating crackdown on peaceful protesters, journalists and human rights defenders, including the excessive use of force, the forced dispersal and intimidation of protesters and the continued arbitrary prosecutions, including on bogus terrorism-related charges.” [8] They also urged the Algerian authorities to put an end to all arbitrary arrests and prosecutions and to release all those arbitrarily detained.

Cracking down on the Amazigh

Human rights defenders and members of the Movement for the Self-Determination of Kabylia are being particularly targeted by this crackdown. On the morning of 22 May, the Algerian police were present in large numbers in Aqvu, Kabylia, where they proceeded to arrest several people who were intending to go to the village of Tifrit to participate in the ceremony of tribute to Masin Uharun, a poet and activist of the Amazigh cause. The following people were arrested on the street, at the train station and in cafes: Massinissa Abache, Mourad Bensalahdine, Achour Iken, Younes Kaced, Djamel Djoudi, Mastinas At Weghlis, Nabil Moussaoui, Menad Maouche, Zahir Ait Mansour, Boudjemaa Bousselam, Karim Fateh, Faouzi Chakri, Marzouk Laoubi, and Takfarinas Hitach.

Yuva Meridja, member of the Federal Council of the World Amazigh Congress (CMA), and Wissem Nasri, were also arrested in Tifrit where they too had come to celebrate the memory of Masin Uharun.

The next day, the Aqvu judged placed most of those arrested in custody. Some were released under judicial supervision.

All were prosecuted for reasons such as: “attacks on the security services, aggression against the forces of order, undermining national unity and armed assembly”, with reference to Articles 79, 97, 99, 146, 148 of the Criminal Code, which provides for various fines and prison sentences of up to 10 years.

Since the reform of the Criminal Code was enacting and MAK classified as a terrorist organisation, a large wave of arrests has taken place not only of members and supporters of this organisation but also of leaders of political movements, human rights defenders, journalists, lawyers and writers.

As of the end of December 2021, there were 340 political prisoners in Algeria,[9] some 90% of whom were Amazigh from Kabylia. Kamira Nait Sid, co-president of the World Amazigh Congress (CMA) was abducted on 24 August 2021 and held incommunicado for 8 days. Her case was reviewed on 1 September 2021 at the Sidi M'hamed Court of Algiers, which resolved that she would be held in pre-trial detention at Koléa Prison in the Wilaya (Province) of Tipaza. She is being prosecuted for four crimes: membership of and participation in a terrorist organisation; incitement to and advocating for subversive acts and terrorism; crime with the help of information and communication technologies; and conspiracy with the purpose of crime, plus a further four misdemeanours: receipt of funds to carry out or incite to carry out acts likely to undermine the security of the State, the stability and normal functioning of its institutions; conspiracy and attack against the authority of the State and the integrity of the national territory; incitement to assembly; and discrimination and hate speech. She faces a sentence ranging from 10 years to life in prison.

Kamira Nait Sid was placed in pre-trial detention in Koléa Prison by the investigating judge on 1/09/2021. Insofar as the defendant is accused of belonging to a terrorist organisation, her pre-trial detention can last up to four months, renewable five (5) times.

Jugurtha Benadjaoud, a member of the Federal Council of the CMA, was arrested on 28 September 2021 and remanded in custody. All Algerian members of the World Amazigh Congress are either in prison or wanted and therefore in hiding, or have fled the country.

Slimane Bouhafs, who spent two years in prison in Algeria for “offending Islam”, had been living in Tunisia since 2018 with political refugee status. The Tunisian authorities handed him over to the Algerian police on 25 August 2021, in violation of the Geneva Convention on the protection of refugees. The investigating judge of Sidi M'hamed Court in Algiers immediately placed him in pre-trial detention.

Rabah Karèche, correspondent for the newspaper Liberté in Tamanrasset (Tuareg territory in southern Algeria) was arrested on 19 April 2021 and sentenced to one year in prison, to serve a minimum of eight months, for publishing an article about the marginalisation of the Kel-Tamasheq (Tuareg) and their expulsion from their lands. The Algerian justice system accused him of spreading “false information” and “undermining public order and national unity.”[10] This is in violation of Article 54 of the Algerian Constitution on freedom of the press. The NGO Reporters Without Borders ranks Algeria 146th out of 180 countries in terms of press freedom.[11]

COVID and arson

Algeria experienced an acute health crisis due to COVID-19, particularly during the months of June and July 2021. The number of victims[12] was high, especially in the Amazigh territories, due to the inadequacy of the health infrastructure, exacerbated by their lack of equipment.

The Amazigh diaspora then mobilised strongly and was able to raise the necessary funds to buy oxygen and oxygen production equipment. Against all the odds, however, this traditional popular mutual aid movement was abruptly disrupted by the Algerian authorities, who established administrative obstacles such as “authorisation to transport donations” or an obligation to “hand over donations to the Algerian Ministry of Health for distribution nationally.” Once again, the Algerian government thus prevented the Amazigh from implementing their traditional “Tiwizi” or solidarity, one of the fundamental values of their culture.

Since 9 August 2021, the inhabitants of several regions of Kabylia, particularly Vgayet and Tizi-Wezzu, have woken up to dozens of fires blazing. Houses, entire villages, orchards and hundreds of hectares of forest have been reduced to ashes. Casualties vary between 90 to 200, according to the source. Their attempts to fight the fires were severely hampered by poor capacity although they could have been supported by the men and equipment (civil engineering and helicopters in particular) of the Algerian army. Several offers of international aid, particularly from neighbouring countries, were even refused by the Algerian government. This is obviously a strategy on the part of the Algerian regime not to provide assistance to people in danger of death in Kabylia.

Algerian Interior Minister Kamel Beldjoud said in Tizi-Wezzu on 10 August that the fires in Kabylia were “of criminal origin.” On 12 August, Aymen Benabderrahmane, Prime Minister, declared that “Algeria has the scientific and technological evidence to demonstrate that these were criminal acts.”[13] And yet, to date, no investigation has been instigated by the government to uncover the perpetrators of the arson attacks in Kabylia.

Exploitation of Amazigh natural resources without their consent

In 2021, the Algerian government granted the Western Mediterranean Zinc (WMZ) company, a subsidiary of Terramin-Australia, a permit to exploit a deposit rich in zinc, lead and other rare minerals at a site located at Tala-Hemza in Kabylia. This area is densely populated and includes several villages. WMZ has not yet started mining but has already established the first technical facilities. And yet the local population have not had their voices heard, nor have they received any information on the content of this project, its economic, social, health and environmental impacts. This is in violation of the principle of free, prior and informed consent of Indigenous Peoples (Articles 10, 29 and 32 of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples). The local population have mobilised to defend their rights.

Violations of the freedom of belief and religious observance

As is the case every year, non-Muslim or non-practising citizens were arrested and sentenced during the month of Ramadan (a month of fast for Muslims). On 14 April 2021, two non-fasters and the owner of a cafeteria in Aqvu, Kabylia were arrested by the police and taken to the police station. Several other arrests took place in Tizi-Wezzu and Iazzugen for not respecting Ramadan.

On the eve of the celebration of Yennayer, the Amazigh New Year, which falls on January 12 each year, the Islamist movements unleashed a hate campaign against the Amazigh, calling them “Kouffar” or godless people. On 10 January 2021, Mohamed Ali Ferkous, an Islamist leader, called on Algerians not to celebrate Yennayer and declaring this celebration “haram” or forbidden. He recommended that this holiday be “banned from Algerian customs and traditions” and that Algerians should be satisfied with “purely Muslim” holidays.[14] The Algerian authorities have not reacted to these intolerant and racist remarks, which are in violation of the law on combatting and preventing all forms of discrimination and hate speech.

The situation of Amazigh women

Amazigh women in Algeria suffer from discrimination both as Algerian women and as Amazigh women.

As Algerian women, they are subject to the Family Code, [15] the provisions of which are in line with Islamic Shari'a law (Islamic precepts). This code provides that men have the status of “wali”, i.e. guardians of the women. In addition, women are discriminated against in many areas, including marriage, divorce, inheritance and other civil rights.

Algeria ratified the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women in 1996. However, it expressed reservations on Articles 2, 15, 16, and 29 of the Convention because they would be “in contradiction with the provisions of the Algerian Family Code.”[16] In its concluding observations following its consideration of Algeria's periodic report, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women expressed “concern that many provisions remain, in laws such as the Family Code and the Criminal Code, that are contrary to the State party’s obligations under the Convention and other relevant international human rights instruments.”[17]

The Amazigh customary law of “Azref” recognises equality between men and women and respects the individual freedoms of each person.[18] Algerian law ignores traditional Amazigh law and therefore contains no specific provisions relating to Amazigh women. Algerian law not only infringes upon the rights of Amazigh women but also on their culture and Amazigh institutions. Moreover, since the Amazigh live in the most marginalised and poorest areas (mountains and deserts), their social situation is more difficult compared to urban women (poor access to education, health, professional activity, etc.). Respecting the rights of Amazigh women necessarily involves respecting the Amazigh as an Indigenous people of Algeria.

International bodies react to human rights violations in Algeria

On 11 May 2021, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) reacted to human rights violations in Algeria. “We are increasingly concerned about the situation in Algeria where the rights to freedom of opinion and expression, peaceful assembly and participation in public affairs continue to be threatened,” said Rupert Colville, spokesperson for the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights  at a press briefing in Geneva.[19]

On 27 September, 2021, the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights and the Commissioner-Rapporteur on the human rights situation in Algeria sent a joint Letter of Appeal to the Algerian government.[20] The letter addressed allegations received by the African Commission in May, June, July and August 2021, respectively:

  • According to reports, in May 2021, the Algerian government classified an Amazigh political Movement for the self-determination of Kabylia (which has been in existence for 20 years) in the region of Kabylia, and all political movements calling for an autonomous status for Kabylia, as “terrorist movements”. Reports alleged that the police has been arresting all members of these movements and that at least 160 Kabyls are currently imprisoned without trial.
  • In June and July 2021, it is also alleged that after the government forbade village communities in Kabylia from organising their own lockdown and controlling the entry of outsiders to their villages, the number of infections due to the COVID-19 Delta variant increased significantly. Reportedly, the lack of respirators in health structures and the insufficient production of oxygen resulted in thousands of deaths, and the Algerian foreign affairs administration is reported to have blocked the delivery of respirators sent by the Kabyl diaspora in Europe.
  • Furthermore, it is alleged that, on 9 August 2021, civil protection structures counted more than 70 fires in the densely-populated and wooded mountain areas of Kabylia. According to reports, these fires were deadly (140 to 250 deaths) and devastating (destruction of entire villages, crops, livestock, orchards and thousands of hectares of forest) because the means with which to fight the flames were derisory. It is alleged that the government has not opened any investigation to find the arsonists.
  • The letter also notes that, on 24 August 2021, Kamira Nait Sid, co-chair of the World Amazigh Congress, was allegedly kidnapped from her home in Tizi-Wezzu, in the Kabylia region, and her family was reportedly not informed. According to reports, Kamira Nait Sid was unlawfully held in detention for eight days, without trial and with no contact with the outside world. It is alleged that Kamira Nait Sid was put in pre-trial detention pending her trial, which will take place at an unknown date. The letter informs the Algerian government that, if these allegations were correct, it (the government) would be in violation of Article 4 on the right to life, Article 6 on the right to personal liberty and protection from arbitrary arrest, Article 7 on the right to fair trial, Article 9 on the right to receive information and free expression, Article 10 on the right to freedom of association, Article 14 on the right to property, Article 16 on the right to health, Article 19 on the right of all peoples to equality and rights, and Article 20 on the right to self-determination.
  • The Letter of Appeal urges the Algerian government to provide clarification to the Commission regarding the referenced allegations; conduct prompt and impartial investigations into the allegations and hold the perpetrators of the fires accountable; ensure full and effective reparations to address the harm suffered by victims, on the loss of property and life; ensure fair trial to those detained without trial; adhere to the provisions of General Comment No. 3 on the right to life, in particular as is relates to the requirement for accountability; and, generally, comply with the letter and the spirit of the African Charter, General Comment No. 3 on the right to life, as well as other relevant human rights instruments to which Algeria is a Party.

On 15 December 2021, concerned about the abusive incarceration of Kamira Nait Sid, the UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention sent a communication to the Algerian government, asking for an explanation. The Algerian government has two months to respond.

On 27 December 2021, the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism, the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights defenders, the Special Rapporteur on the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and of association and the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, sent a joint letter to the Algerian government (OL DZA 12/2021) in which they expressed their concerns regarding certain recently approved laws relating to security and counter-terrorism, in particular Ordinance No. 21-08 amending and supplementing Ordinance No. 66-156 of 8/06/1966 on the Criminal Code and Law No. 20-06 of 22/04/2020 also amending the Criminal Code. In this communication, the UN experts express their concern that “the adoption and implementation of these laws may lead to significant violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to freedom of expression, association and peaceful assembly, the right to security of the person and to a fair trial, as established in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) ratified by Algeria.”[21]

Belkacem Lounes is a doctor of Economics and Social Sciences, university professor (Grenoble Alpes University), expert member of the Working Group on Indigenous Populations/Communities and Minorities in Africa of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, member of the UN Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, and author of numerous reports and articles on Amazigh and Indigenous Peoples’ rights.

 

This article is part of the 36th edition of The Indigenous World, a yearly overview produced by IWGIA that serves to document and report on the developments Indigenous Peoples have experienced. Find The Indigenous World 2022 in full here

 

Notes and references 

[1] Ministère de la Défense Nationale (MDN). “Communiqué du Ministère de la Défense Nationale.” MDN, April 25, 2021. https://www.mdn.dz/site_principal/sommaire/actualites/fr/2021/avril/lutte25042021fr.php

[2] Télévision Algérienne. Facebook, April 26, 2021. https://www.facebook.com/watch/?v=834238140637323

[3] Agence Siwel. “Réponse du Président Ferhat Mehenni au Ministère de la Défense Algérien.” 

Siwel – Agence Kabyle d'Information, April 26, 2021. https://www.siwel.info/reponse-du-president-ferhat-mehenni-au-ministere-de-la-defense-algerien_63814.html

[4] Republique Algerienne Democratique et Populaire. Presidence de la Republique. Secrétariat Général du Gouvernement. “Code Penal.” 2015. https://www.joradp.dz/trv/fpenal.pdf

[5] Oumar, Mohand. “Résultats des élections législatives de 2021 en Algérie.” ObservAlgérie, June 15, 2021.

https://observalgerie.com/2021/06/15/politique/resultats-elections-legislatives-2021/

[6] Amnesty International France. “Communiqué de Presse: Algérie. Des Dizaines de Personnes Arrêtées dans le Cadre j’une Escalade de la Répression contre les Militant·E·S.” Amnesty International France, June 24, 2021.

https://www.amnesty.fr/presse/algrie-des-dizaines-de-personnes-arrtes-dans-le-ca

[7] MENA Rights Group. “Le président algérien durcit par ordonnance la législation antiterroriste” [Algerian President toughens anti-terrorism legislation by Ordinance]. MENA Rights Group, June 24, 2021. https://menarights.org/en/articles/le-president-algerien-durcit-par-ordonnance-la-legislation-antiterroriste

[8] Human Rigths Watch. “Joint Letter: Algerian Authorities' Alarming Crackdown on Pro-Democracy Forces during HRC 47.” Human Rights Watch, June 25, 2021. https://www.hrw.org/news/2021/06/25/joint-letter-algerian-authorities-alarming-crackdown-pro-democracy-forces-during

[9] According to the National Committee for the Release of Prisoners: Comité National pour la Libération des Détenus – CNLD.  “Liste des détenus d'opinion par wilaya.”  Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/comitenationalpourlaliberationdesdetenusCNLD/

[10] Le Monde avec AFP. “En Algérie, un journaliste condamné à huit mois de prison ferme après un article sur un mouvement de protestation des Touareg. “ Le Monde Afrique, August 12, 2021. https://www.lemonde.fr/afrique/article/2021/08/12/en-algerie-un-journaliste-condamne-a-huit-mois-de-prison-ferme-apres-un-article-sur-un-mouvement-de-protestation-des-touaregs_6091278_3212.html

[11] Sifi, Kenza. “En prison depuis le 19 Avril pour un article de presse. RSF appelle à la « libération immédiate » de Rabah Karèche.” Liberté, April 28, 2021. https://www.liberte-algerie.com/actualite/rsf-appelle-a-la-liberation-immediate-de-rabah-kareche-357977

[12] “Covid-19 continues to claim victims in Algeria and more particularly in Kabylia, which is experiencing an unprecedented upsurge in this pandemic since its appearance. According to local sources, as many as 50 people are dying every “day from complications related to this disease. Most of these patients are dying from lack of oxygen.” Mohand Ouamar, Mohand. “Coronavirus en Kabylie : Un mercredi noir à Tizi-Ouzou.” [Coronavirus in Kabylia: A black Wednesday in Tizi-Ouzou]. ObservAlgérie, July 29, 2021. https://observalgerie.com/2021/07/29/societe/coronavirus-kabylie-tizi-ouzou/

[13] Orus-Boudjema, Sofiane. “Incendies en Algérie: Kamel Beldjoud et la théorie du complot. [Fires in Algeria: Kamel Beldjoud and the conspiracy theory], Jeune Afrique, August 13, 2021. https://www.jeuneafrique.com/1217100/politique/incendies-en-algerie-kamel-beldjoud-et-la-theorie-du-complot/

[14] ObservAlgérie. “Célébration de Yennayer: Une fatwa salafiste suscite la polémique en Algérie.” [Yennayer celebrations: Salafist fatwa causes controversy in Algeria].  ObservAlgérie, January 10, 2021.  https://www.observalgerie.com/celebration-de-yennayer-une-fatwa-salafiste-suscite-la-polemique-en-algerie/2021/?amp_js_v=0.1&usqp=mq331AQHKAFQArABIA==

[15] Republique Algerienne Democratique et Populaire. Presidence de la Republique. Secrétariat Général du Gouvernement. “Code de la famille.” 2007. https://www.joradp.dz/trv/ffam.pdf

[16] United Nations. Treaty Collection. “8. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. , Declarations and Reservations. Algeria.” https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-8&chapter=4&clang=_en#EndDec

[17] United Nations. “CEDAW/C/DZA/CO/3-4. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination

against Women. 23 March 2012. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. Fifty-first session. 13 February–2 March 2012. Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. Algeria.”  UN Treaty Body Base. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G12/414/06/PDF/G1241406.pdf?OpenElement

[18] Report on the rights of Amazigh women in Algeria, Kamira Nait Sid, July 2019: “The Amazigh woman who, in ancient customs, was respected as a woman and wife, today finds herself relegated to the rank of a minor for life. In the ancestral Amazigh tradition, women have always commanded the greatest respect from their community. They were involved in decisions about the family, education, heritage rights, etc. They have always had the right to preserve the cultural traditions of their people. They were actively involved in important decisions made by the community.” Internal report to the World Amazigh Congress. “Journée mondiale des droits de l'homme 2021.” Congrès Mondial Amazigh, December 9, 2021. www.congres-mondial-amazigh.org

[19] Rédaction AE. “Droits de l’homme en Algérie : l’ONU « de plus en plus préoccupée »” Algérie Eco, 11 May 11, 2021. https://www.algerie-eco.com/2021/05/11/droits-de-lhomme-en-algerie-lonu-de-plus-en-plus-preoccupee/

[20] African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights. “69th Ordinary Session of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights Intersession Activity Report of The Working Group on Indigenous Populations/Communities and Minorities in Africa. 15 November - 5 December 2021.” https://www.achpr.org/sessions/intersession?id=377

[21] Communication UN SR–Algeria, December 27,. Rèf.: OL DZA 12/2021.

https://spcommreports.ohchr.org/TMResultsBase/DownLoadPublicCommunicationFile?gId=26905

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