Kalaallit Nunaat (Greenland) has been a self-governing country within the Danish Realm since 1979. The population is 88% Greenlandic Inuit out of a total of 56,225 inhabitants (July 2019).1 The majority of Greenlandic Inuit refer to themselves as Kalaallit.
Indigenous peoples in Greenland
The indigenous peoples of Greenland are Inuit and make up the majority of the Greenlandic population. Greenland is a self-governing country within the Danish Realm, and although Denmark has adopted the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Greenland’s population continue to face serious challenges.
In 1996, at the request of Greenland, Denmark ratified ILO Convention 169. Greenland also joined the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child without reservations on 26 March 1992.
The Inuit Circumpolar Council (ICC), an indigenous peoples’ organisation and ECOSOC-accredited NGO, represents Inuit from Greenland, Canada, Alaska and Chukotka (Russia), and is also a permanent participant in the Arctic Council. The Inuit Circumpolar Council has recently initiated the Pikialaorsuaq Commission, which serves as a consultation tool for Canadian and Greenlandic communities that are most closely connected to the North Water Polyna (Pikialaorsuaq in Greenlandic).
Indigenous peoples in Greenland
The Greenlandic population numbers 56,000, of whom 50,000 are Inuit. Greenland’s diverse culture includes subsistence hunting, commercial fisheries, tourism, and emerging efforts to develop the oil and mining industries.
Fishing is the primary industry of the country and Greenland has legislative power over the fisheries sector. The fishing industry is the largest source of income and is hence very important to the national economy. Also, it is the source of many people's livelihoods right across the country.
The majority of the people of Greenland speak the Inuit language, Kalaallisut, which is the official language. The second language is Danish.
One of the struggles of Greenland’s peoples relates to uranium mining. The uranium question has split the population in two, and there have been more demonstrations than ever before The part of the population that is pro-uranium extraction argues that it will create much-needed jobs in Greenland, as well as financial benefits. Those who are against argue that the environmental and health risks for animals and humans are too high and that the community near the uranium mine Kuannersuit will have to be relocated because of the danger of contamination. There is also a fear that the tailings from the uranium mining will contaminate the environment for thousands of years. A smaller group of the population is arguing that far more hearings are needed throughout Greenland in order to make a decision. The uranium project led by Greenland Minerals and Energy is still under development.
There are an increasing number of suicides occurring in Greenland. There were 47 recorded in 2016, which is ten more than in 2015. It is mainly young people that commit suicide and the victims have become younger over the last decade. Indigenous suicide is a global problem and one that more and more states are addressing. Greenland suffers, along with many other indigenous communities, the effects of self-harm and suicide.
A new concession has just been awarded for a zinc mining project in the Citronen Fjord. There will be significant Greenlandic involvement in the project, and there have been several hearings in the local community. However, very few locals showed up to these. This is mainly due to the hearings not being announced properly, the meetings being led by outsiders and the interpretation often being very poor.
The Government of Greenland and UNICEF Denmark entered into a partnership agreement in 2010 aimed at working to raise awareness of children's rights in Greenland, both among children and adults. Over a five-year period, it has implemented various projects to promote children's rights.
IWGIA welcomes the UN Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Ms. Victoria Tauli-Corpuz, to Denmark and Greenland from 10-19 March.
On Tuesday night, before COVID-19 shut down most of Denmark, a dozen people gathered in Copenhagen to meet the UN Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Ms. Victoria Tauli-Corpuz. The meeting, organised by IWGIA and the Greenlandic House, created a space for Greenlanders in Denmark to openly present and discuss the situation and challenges they face and are confronted with in Denmark.
In August 2019, US President Mr Donald Trump expressed an interest in buying Greenland from Denmark. In an update on Facebook, IWGIA's Board Member and Inuit from Greenland, Sara Olsvig, explains why Greenland cannot be bought, and how Trump's apparent interest in Greenland is based on ignorance of all peoples’, including indigenous peoples' right to self-determination.