The Indigenous World 2022: Editorial
As the world grappled with the COVID-19 pandemic throughout 2021, Indigenous Peoples continued to respond to the virus in their traditional and innovative ways while also contending with the daily discrimination they continuously face.
In fact, the pandemic has exposed and aggravated the many pre-existing inequalities Indigenous Peoples come up against, as noted by the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues in its 20th session in April 2021. The Forum went further to note that this inequality was especially significant for Indigenous women and girls who, already left behind before the pandemic, are now even further behind.
Indigenous women play crucial roles in their communities as breadwinners, caretakers, knowledge keepers, leaders and human rights defenders. While Indigenous women have made small but significant progress in being part of decision-making processes in some communities, have risen to leadership in communal and national roles and stood on the frontline of protests to defend their lands and biodiversity, the reality remains that they are massively under-represented, disproportionately negatively affected by the decisions made on their behalf without their valuable input, and all too frequently the victims of violence and sexual assault.
Indigenous women continue to disproportionately face intersectional discrimination and multiple expressions of violence – in a world where one in three women experiences violence – and are often excluded from decision-making processes and leadership positions. Violence against Indigenous women triggers other negative effects pertaining to their mental and physical health and lowers their self-worth, thus lessening their possibilities of earning an income and weakening their level of participation and decision-making powers.
What the analysis and reporting in this year’s edition of The Indigenous World shows is that the picture for Indigenous women across the globe remains unacceptably much the same. Reflected across nearly every continent is the observation that Indigenous women hold a respected position within their communities, acknowledged as being the glue that keeps communities together, the repository that holds their knowledge and the activist that will stand up to protect their lands and the survival of their peoples. And yet it can also be seen that such a position rarely comes with legal rights and formal power.
In Laos, for example, only around a quarter of Indigenous women are literate, which contributes to their lack of confidence in being able to speak Lao and thus hinders their ability to participate in public meetings, over and above the fact that they are already burdened with household, child and community work. Conversely, however, it is because of that work that they are the ones who spend most time in the forests and have the most Indigenous knowledge of food, nutrition and the status of forest resources. And yet, despite that deep knowledge and huge responsibility, they are under-represented in government and as staff of international and local non-governmental and civil society organisations.
IWGIA collects data through the Indigenous Navigator, an online portal providing access to a set of tools developed for and by Indigenous Peoples with resources based on community-generated data. Through the community surveys and advocacy processes of the Indigenous Navigator, Indigenous women across all regions have reported that they face multiple forms of discrimination, unequal pay, violence and harassment, both inside and outside their communities, limited access to health services, lack of recognition of their land rights, and limited participation in the decision-making that affects their lives.
Roles of Indigenous women
Indigenous Peoples all over the world face systemic discrimination rooted in persistent racism as well as past and present colonialism. Indigenous Peoples are forced to live in countries created and ruled by the descendants of settler colonialists from overseas, or in countries created after the colonisers had left and which are now ruled by the dominant society’s elites, resulting in their experience of discrimination, dispossession and disempowerment.
In a majority of cases reported in this year’s edition, the systemic racism and discrimination they face means that women are often simply described as being the ones caring for families and communities as their major social role. However, in some places, those roles are slowly shifting and women have been successful in increasing their presence in the political space, despite continuing to have to contend with various challenges.
In Nagalim, where communities and customs are generally patriarchal, some Naga women are now able to hold positions of political power in village councils. They have also established seed banks and are preserving their culture through certified woven materials and cultural attire that is a major identifier of their peoples. And yet they still cannot inherit land. In Cambodia, the dominant Khmer consider Indigenous women to be on the lowest echelon of society and yet they are important environmental actors and rights defenders actively engaged in protest and activism. At the same time, however, they are victims of high levels of violence, harassment, threats and arrests at the hands of state authorities and companies. They are also integral to resolving land disputes within their communities but, though highly valued in their communities, they still need their husband’s permission and support to be involved in community matters. There are, however, in limited but growing circumstances, instances where women are rising to leadership positions and more are now seeking a university education and work as lawyers and teachers.
In Uganda, where Indigenous women struggle to get elected for a variety of reasons – they are the minority in their community, they do not have the ability to raise money for campaigning or have had limited access to education – many are still able to hold important political positions in local government, including as local and district councillors, as well as technical positions within a community’s political structures. At the national level, four Indigenous women hold positions in Parliament and the President’s Office.
And, in the USA, Deb Haaland was appointed as the country’s 1st Native American Secretary of the Interior, working to improve relations with Native nations.
Indigenous women in Colombia continued to exert their influence in communities and territories, increasing their participation, including on the national scene where two Indigenous women have become candidates for the Presidential elections scheduled in 2022.
Māori women are increasingly being recognised in various fields and are holding decision-making positions. Ten percent of Members of Parliament self-identify as Māori women, two out of 20 cabinet members are Māori women and Māori women also co-lead two of the five parties in Parliament. Despite this progress and respect, discrimination still exists. Māori women have one of the highest rates of incarceration globally, accounting for 63% of the female prison population in the country. Rates of violence against Māori women are considerably higher than that of non-indigenous women, their life expectancy is significantly lower, their unemployment rate significantly higher and they are severely underpaid for their work.
Indigenous women in Chile are politically active in their territories, communities and in national politics, defending their lands and resources. Nine of the 17 seats reserved for Indigenous Peoples in the Constitutional Assembly are held by Indigenous women and a Mapuche woman was elected to preside over the assembly. Again, however, Indigenous women face the widest inequalities and gender gaps in the country, because they are women and because they are Indigenous – coming up against barriers to accessing justice, education and proper health care, and facing greater rates of discrimination, poverty and violence.
Indigenous women in Argentina organised a huge nationwide march in 2021, culminating in Buenos Aires, to raise awareness of their struggle for self-determination as a people, for their lands and their bodies. These women and children continue to be the demographic that is most affected by COVID-19, the health crisis, lack of water, inadequate food and the deterioration of the environment. Benet women in Uganda also used their power of protest to call attention to the brutal attacks their people have suffered at the hands of the Uganda Wildlife Authority. In the Philippines, where large infrastructure projects continue apace, Indigenous women protested against dam constructions and non-compliance with free, prior and informed consent protocols (FPIC).
Violence against Indigenous women
Due to the historic discrimination, marginalisation and exclusion that Indigenous Peoples face in the countries where they live, the likelihood of them suffering violence with impunity increases, and much of this is expressed as violence against Indigenous women. The countless murdered and missing Indigenous women in Canada or the countless unreported and unrecorded rape cases against Indigenous women by settlers, military, police, workers from outside, or tourists, are brutal examples of this. Indeed, Indigenous women and girls are significantly more likely to be victims of different forms of sexual violence and more likely to experience rape than non-indigenous women and girls.
Too many of the reports in this edition note that violence against Indigenous women and girls is continuing at a disturbing rate. Where possible, these cases have been documented, but many go unreported, thus only showing us a partial reality. In India, for example, an October 2021 report noted that there were 3,676 cases of violence against tribal women and girls in 2020, nearly a third of which were cases of rape.
Further, of the cases of violence documented, few result in any legal or criminal action. In Bangladesh, for example, 42 cases of violence against Indigenous women and girls were documented in 2021 by a human rights organisation. Some 60% of the alleged perpetrators were never arrested.
In some cases, reports have shown that such violence increased in 2021 during the pandemic. In Botswana, Cambodia and Zimbabwe, cases of rape and domestic abuse increased, causing several NGOs to call for greater attention to women’s rights.
Multi-faceted impacts of COVID-19 on Indigenous Peoples
Just as in 2020, equipped with their knowledge and experience of having faced contagious illnesses and other pandemics across generations, Indigenous Peoples continued to respond to COVID-19 with traditional and new methods for protection and prevention throughout 2021. They did this in the face of the disproportionate discrimination and marginalisation they continually come up against. Some national governments continued to lack adequate emergency relief programmes, policies and implementation targeted at Indigenous Peoples, offering little to no social, health, education or economic help.
In Nepal, for example, Indigenous communities actively used their advocacy skills. They held constructive dialogues with local and provincial governments and their national human rights commission regarding access to public funds, social services and protection. They have also been monitoring the recovery from the pandemic as well as the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals. In Namibia, the government did provide COVID-19 materials in Indigenous languages but, in other countries such as Botswana, organisations had to step in to provide information in local languages.
Across Africa, Indigenous Peoples were seriously economically affected by the severe downturn in tourism. In Botswana, there was an 80% decline in tourism, affecting the lives of Indigenous Peoples in wildlife management areas, as the profits linked to tourism make up 46% of their income. In Zimbabwe, tourism fell by as much as 60%, not only affecting the economy of those Indigenous Peoples who provide tourism-related services but also the women, who saw a decline in the number of crafts sold. In Namibia, tourism dropped by 40%, thus affecting the economies of many Indigenous Peoples. In Kenya, where mitigation measures and loans were put in place to help businesses, Indigenous Peoples were not able to take advantage of these government schemes as they do not have any collateral.
In many cases, the rate of infection was also higher for Indigenous Peoples than for the non-indigenous population. Indigenous women in Botswana, for instance, contracted the virus at higher rates than men. In Aotearoa, Māori started off being the ethnic group least affected by the virus but, between September and December 2021, they became the group with the highest infection rates, increasing from 5.7% of all cases to 48.3%. In Paraguay, the mortality rate for Indigenous Peoples due to the virus was 12.71%, significantly higher than that of non-indigenous peoples at 3.4%. French Polynesia, a country that is 80% Indigenous, experienced one of the highest per capita mortality rates in the world with 460 deaths reported in one month alone.
Governments continued to use COVID-19 as an excuse to implement laws and practices that were harmful to both Indigenous and non-indigenous communities. According to the 2021 thematic study of the UN Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Mr. Francisco Calí Tzay, submitted to the UN Human Rights Council, State recovery measures have negatively impacted Indigenous Peoples, instead focusing on managing the economic crisis caused by the virus and expanding business operations at the expense of Indigenous Peoples, their land and the environment.
In the Philippines, the government lifted its moratorium on mining projects in 2021 in order to boost the pandemic-hit economy. This led to the re-opening of a gold mine, which now has permission to operate until 2044, plus the four-year ban on open-pit mining has been lifted. In Malaysia, Indigenous Peoples were disproportionately affected by high infection rates and a loss of livelihoods due to businesses and industries shutting down, leaving them dependent on food aid to survive. The logging industry nevertheless continued unabated, recording profits higher in 2021 than in 2020.
COVID-19 also had specific effects on Indigenous women. In the Philippines, the government banned home births, a traditional practice among Indigenous communities in the country, thus criminalising their custom despite it being financially difficult for Indigenous women to first reach hospitals and then pay for the hospital birth. In Kenya, due to the disrupted economy, Indigenous women had to move to urban centres to find work where they were often mistreated, paid low salaries and sometimes forced to engage in commercial sex.
Attacks on Indigenous Peoples’ human rights defenders
Indigenous Peoples continued to be targeted in 2021 for defending their human, land and environmental rights, in many cases facilitated by and under the cover of pandemic-related measures and realities.
At least 358 human rights defenders were killed in 2021. A staggering 59% of those were defenders working on Indigenous Peoples’ rights, land rights and environmental rights. Over a quarter (26%) of those killed were Indigenous persons and 18% identified as women. As in previous years, the majority of these killings occurred in the Americas, Asia and the Pacific regions, although this is hardly a full, global picture and many more cases go unreported.
In Peru, Indigenous communities are constantly having to protect their territories from encroachment due to illicit activities, including coca leaf production, illegal logging and drug trafficking. Four Indigenous Amazonian leaders were killed in 2021 in incidents related to protecting their lands and communities from such activities.
These killings are obviously tragic but so is the impunity with which these actors operate. Many attacks and threats are often not investigated unless attention is brought to them through mass protest or activism.
The authorities in Paraguay only officially charged a group of armed civilians once their brutal attacks had become public. In March 2021, these armed civilians carried out a forced eviction of nine Indigenous persons, including women, children and elderly persons, assaulting them, threatening them with death and burning down the houses and belongings of 10 families.
Not much has changed in the final year of President Duterte’s term in the Philippines. Laws targeting “communists”/ “terrorists” are still in place, which in actual fact target Indigenous Peoples, human rights defenders and civil society workers. Police raids and attacks have continued against Indigenous leaders. In one example, three Indigenous leaders in the Southern Tagalog region were killed and six more arrested in a police raid.
It would be remiss to talk about attacks on Indigenous Peoples, human rights defenders and people in general in 2021 without talking about Myanmar. Since the military (Tatmadaw) coup on 1 February, more than 1,500 people have lost their lives; over 11,000 have been arbitrarily detained, with arrest warrants out for nearly 2,000 more; and close to 300,000 people have been displaced, with at least two million people in need of humanitarian assistance.
While it could be said that, prior to the coup, it was Indigenous, ethnic and minority groups that largely bore the brunt of the Tatmadaw’s brutality for decades, since the coup, there are few people living in the country that have not suffered under the military junta’s power grab and witnessed its violence. People across the world are now witnessing the Tatmadaw’s flagrant disregard for international law in its willingness to kill, injure, abuse and/or detain its own people indiscriminately.
Land grabbing and large-scale projects continue
Indigenous Peoples continue to experience injustice as large companies appear to be allowed to freely continue their activities, encroaching on Indigenous lands, with governments using COVID-19 economic recovery as a justification to start or reinvigorate infrastructure and development projects. Rather than slowing down, even during the second year of the pandemic, activities only increased. Part of this escalation can be attributed to the increase in convoluted investment agreements designed to protect the interests and rights of investors and which have encouraged transnational corporations to pursue projects in areas that particularly affect Indigenous Peoples.
Plans for the development of tourist destinations are ongoing throughout Asia and Africa. In Mondulkiri province, Cambodia's largest and most sparsely populated province, the Bunong Indigenous people remain under intense pressure as land encroachment and land speculation has increased considerably in 2021. The province has been earmarked as a future tourist destination complete with airport, casinos, hotels and shopping malls. Indigenous communities are being coerced, bribed and manipulated to sell their land at a cheap price to a variety of different actors, including real estate developers, government officials and businesses, both local and international. In one case, an entire mountain was sold off without the consent of all community members. Many of the sales have taken place in violation of Cambodian law, and many land disputes have thus been filed and are tied up in courts.
The same has been happening in India in the midst of the second wave of COVID-19. The Indian government’s main policy think tank, the National Institution for Transforming India, is continuing its large-scale development project to develop the Great Nicobar Island in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, potentially endangering the Nicobarese and Shompen peoples. The project, which would develop a considerable amount of Indigenous land to the detriment of the daily life of numerous villages, aims to build a large sea terminal and airport, among other facilities, to encourage visitors to experience the natural environment of the area.
In Botswana, the Office of President Masisi has ordered the acquisition of a large tract of land within Moremi Game Reserve which, until the 1970s, was Khwe San land. The government’s intention is to turn this now-detribalised land into a government-run facility. This is just one of many land grabbing projects that Indigenous Peoples are struggling against in the country. In 2021, the government also seized several major land parcels in the Okavango Delta, where oil was discovered in late 2020. The area is now being opened up for exploration by both the governments of Botswana and neighbouring Namibia.
Several such land issues are also happening in Tanzania, often without the say of Indigenous Peoples. In June 2021, the Minister of Natural Resources and Tourism announced that Essimingor Forest was going to be expanded and would become a forest reserve, meaning that it will become a State-owned and managed forest. This was done without any knowledge of the people who have lived in and used the forest undisturbed up until that point. Meanwhile, Indigenous Peoples in Loliondo and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area continue to be under constant threat of eviction.
Nonetheless, despite the adverse situation facing Indigenous Peoples, 2021 was also filled with positive developments and victories in the struggle for Indigenous Peoples’ rights and their recognition.
In a historic judgement by the Kenyan Environment and Land Court in Meru, the title deeds to the land on which the Lake Turkana Wind Power project (LTWP) sits have been declared “irregular and unlawful”. The case, which began in October 2014 and finally ended on 19 October 2021, found that the title deeds were acquired irregularly. Indigenous Peoples in the area have long complained that this large wind energy project, among other issues, never followed proper FPIC protocols or proper compensation when the land leases were acquired, in addition to violating current and former land acts.
In a similar case, also in October, Norway’s Supreme Court ruled that the rights of Sámi reindeer herders were being violated by two wind farms in the western part of the country as the turbines have illegally encroached onto grazing lands and have had significant negative consequences on the reindeers’ ability to graze. The permits for their operation were thus deemed illegal as they interfered with the herders’ cultural rights. As judges noted, green and renewable energy projects are necessary and important but there are less intrusive ways to construct and operate them. Indigenous Peoples and IWGIA have been speaking out in this regard for several years. Not only are there less intrusive ways but there are also more respectful, inclusive and legal ways to plan for and implement them.
In a rare European human rights victory in March 2021, Indigenous Peoples and local communities in Nepal won a hard-fought victory against the European Investment Bank (EIB). The case revolved around a complaint raised through the EIB Complaints Mechanism that their funding of a hydropower project with a powerline rerouted through a densely populated Indigenous area had followed inadequate FPIC protocols. The EIB must now ensure that lenders and business partners in the energy sector coordinate and ensure that “tailor-made” approaches to FPIC requirements are created and implemented.
Despite a tough year of polarising politics in Peru, the new government has become more amenable towards Indigenous Peoples and open to dialogue since making changes to its ministerial cabinet in late 2021. Additionally, the emergence of another autonomous Indigenous government was solidified in 2021 in Peru, when the Awajún Autonomous Territorial Government (GTAA) held a large assembly in December to elect its first leader, Gil Inoach Shawit. The Awajún government represents a people of approximately 70,000 members with its roots in four departments: Amazonas, San Martín, Loreto and Cajamarca.
As Chile continues to come back from the October 2019 social uprising, Indigenous people have been coordinating and advocating for the country to become a plurinational and intercultural state that recognises their collective rights. In a historic milestone, in March 2021, Indigenous people were able to obtain 17 of the 155 Constitutional Assembly seats, meaning that for the first time they have been able to sit alongside the rest of the Chilean people in drafting a charter to establish a new framework for interethnic and intercultural coexistence.
In the United States, President Joe Biden is working on strengthening the relationship between government agencies and tribal nations, with 17 federal agencies signing up to protect tribal treaty rights and five signing up to better protect sacred sites. Additionally, almost immediately after taking office, Biden placed a moratorium on oil and gas activities in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, revoked the permit for the Keystone XL Pipeline and temporarily revoked the permit for the Dakota Access Pipeline, calling for a new environmental study.
There have been other steps in many places which, if implemented and acted upon, will go a long way in addressing Indigenous Peoples’ rights. In Nepal, a promising new National Human Rights Action Plan was approved in December 2021 aimed at reviewing, reforming and implementing existing laws to protect and promote Indigenous Peoples’ rights, and protecting their history, language, script, culture, heritage, music, and historical and sacred sites.
After 10 years, land tenure reform in the Democratic Republic of the Congo has finally been validated by ministers. The national reform finally addressed deviations from land tenure laws and rights that had precipitated numerous land conflicts, including land grabbing and evictions. Further, a national law on the protection and promotion of Indigenous Peoples’ rights has been adopted by the country’s National Assembly.
Indigenous Peoples make gains in international and regional processes and mechanisms
As the pandemic continued in 2021, international and regional mechanisms and agencies continued to adapt to the new reality of not being able to hold face-to-face meetings. The increased use of online tools and virtual spaces, which represented a learning curve in 2020, was accepted more enthusiastically in 2021, allowing for even greater participation in events, as well as a greater number of side events and online meetings.
However, the lack of physical meetings continued to affect Indigenous Peoples in their proactive engagement with States to promote their views and demands. Towards the end of the year, however, some meetings started to adopt a hybrid model of virtual and physical engagement. This new model has yet to prove its effectiveness.
Despite the changing circumstances of the global pandemic, Indigenous Peoples made progress in advancing their issues in various places. At COP26, for instance, the advocacy, communications and growing presence of Indigenous Peoples has started to make its mark. The climate leadership of Indigenous Peoples is increasingly being recognised as they advance rights-based solutions grounded in their knowledge systems.
The UN Human Rights Council also adopted a resolution recognising a safe, clean, healthy and sustainable environment as a human right, calling on States to work alongside Indigenous Peoples on its implementation. Further, the Council also decided to appoint a new UN Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights in the context of climate change, to be named in 2022.
Apart from the thematic study on the impacts of COVID-19 mentioned earlier, UN Special Rapporteur Mr. Francisco Calí Tzay also submitted a study on the challenges faced by Indigenous Peoples living in urban areas, who commonly live in marginalised urban areas in which their rights and cultural needs are not effectively addressed by public policies or urban planning. Further, Indigenous women and girls in urban areas are at increased risk of human trafficking, forced labour, prostitution, sexual exploitation and gender-based violence.
The European Union passed five resolutions that include Indigenous Peoples’ rights and issues, calling for better rights protection, greater inclusion in decision-making procedures, and corporate due diligence and accountability. The resolutions also covered the impacts of climate change and the role Indigenous Peoples can and should play.
On 30 December 2021, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) adopted its thematic report on the Right to Self-Determination of Indigenous and Tribal Peoples. This is the first time that the IACHR has comprehensively addressed the scope and content of this right, which is fundamental to Indigenous Peoples’ enjoyment of their other human rights, both collectively and individually. Despite the virtual meetings imposed by the pandemic, the dialogues with representatives of Indigenous and tribal peoples across the continent enriched the content of the report and provided a better understanding of their situation and their own aspirations and visions regarding this right.
Looking forward, it will be necessary to continue to strengthen and use these instruments to hold States accountable to their human rights obligations and to prioritise the well-being and safety of Indigenous Peoples over and above economic recovery. Further, for the meetings of these mechanisms and agencies, as digital solutions to participation are becoming a new standard, it will be necessary to continue to learn from and take advantage of such opportunities without sacrificing the voice of Indigenous Peoples and other groups. Additionally, as hybrid meetings start becoming the norm, including virtual and face-to-face experiences, everything must be done to ensure they are carried out in an equitable and safe manner.
Avoiding a new normal
Indigenous Peoples continue to contend with inequalities that have become more evident and more pronounced due to the pandemic. As the world opens up in 2022, it is important that Indigenous Peoples are not forgotten or side-lined and that their disproportionate treatment, the intensified encroachment onto their lands, the increased extraction of resources, and the blatant disregard for safe and inclusive health policies and lack of inclusion do not become a new normal.
To ensure this does not happen, specific action needs to be taken by national, regional and international bodies and mechanisms to ensure the participation and consultation of Indigenous Peoples, whether digital or physical, in any discourse and decision-making process. Further, with the advent and growing facility and comfort of Indigenous and non-indigenous people using digital solutions for participation and communication, States and other bodies need to ensure that Indigenous Peoples have the equipment, access and connectivity to be able to pursue such participation.
Further, the voice and consultation of Indigenous women and girls needs to be amplified and taken into consideration in every facet of society. Indigenous women are often seen and lauded as being the very fabric of a family, society and people but, in many cases, this can be interpreted as lip service as they do not enjoy a commensurate level of political responsibility and authority. Instead, they often bear the brunt of decisions that negatively affect them. States and other bodies must make sure these steps backward, exacerbated during the pandemic, were only temporary and that opportunities are created and pathways are opened for their necessary contributions.
To avoid a new normal, Indigenous Peoples’ rights, now more than ever, need to be recognised, protected and defended. The land they traditionally own and protect, the knowledge and history they hold, and the methods they employ to live sustainably are necessary for the preservation and enjoyment of the planet’s remaining biodiversity. Indigenous Peoples’ very existence and contributions, valuable in themselves, are also intrinsic to how we as humanity responsibly move forward. Just as a society cannot fully exist without the full participation, acknowledgement and respect of its women and girls, neither can humanity fully exist without respect for Indigenous Peoples’ rights and their full participation in any decisions that affect their lives and future.
IWGIA Gender Focal Point
Copenhagen, March 2022
This article is part of the 36th edition of The Indigenous World, a yearly overview produced by IWGIA that serves to document and report on the developments Indigenous Peoples have experienced. Find The Indigenous World 2022 in full here
Notes and references
 UN Women. Facts and figures: Ending violence against women. February 2022. https://www.unwomen.org/en/what-we-do/ending-violence-against-women/facts-and-figures
 Native Women’s Association of Canada. The Native Women’s Association. Fact Sheet: Violence Against Indigenous Women, Girls, and 2SLGBTQQIA People in Canada. (Ottawa: NWAC). https://www.nwac.ca/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/MMIWG-and-Violence-Fact-Sheet-Formatted-2021.pdf
 UN General Assembly. “Report of the Special Rapporteur on the rights of indigenous peoples, Victoria Tauli Corpuz”. August 6, 2015, A/HRC/30/41, para. 47. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G15/173/83/PDF/G1517383.pdf?OpenElement
 National Crime Records Bureau. Ministry of Home Affairs. Crime in India 2020. Statistics Volume-II. P. (New Delhi: National Crime Records Bureau. Ministry of Home Affairs, 2021). 199 & 203 https://ncrb.gov.in/sites/default/files/CII%202020%20Volume%202.pdf
 United Nations. A/HRC/48/54. General Assembly. 6 August 2021. Human Rights Council. Forty-eighth session. 13 September–1 October 2021. Agenda item 3. Promotion and protection of all human rights, civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights, including the right to development. Indigenous peoples and coronavirus disease (COVID-19) recovery. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the rights of indigenous peoples, José Francisco Calí Tzay. https://undocs.org/en/A/HRC/48/54
 Front Line Defenders. “Global Analysis 2021”. 2022. https://www.frontlinedefenders.org/sites/default/files/2021_global_analysis_-_final.pdf
 IWGIA. “IWGIA commemorates the lives lost in the past year in Myanmar; condemns the brutal military rule.” February 1, 2022. https://www.iwgia.org/en/myanmar/4598-iwgia-commemorates-the-lives-lost-in-the-past-year-in-myanmar-condemns-the-brutal-military-rule.html
 IWGIA. “The cost of ignoring human rights and Indigenous Peoples.” November 10, 2021. https://www.iwgia.org/en/news/4562-the-cost-of-ignoring-human-rights-and-indigenous-peoples.html
 Organization of American States and Inter-American Commission on Human Rights “Derecho a la libre determinación de los Pueblos Indígenas y Tribales.” December 30, 2021. https://www.oas.org/es/cidh/informes/pdfs/LibreDeterminacionES.pdf