Indigenous peoples in Guam
Guåhan (meaning “we have”), more commonly known as Guam, is the largest and southernmost island in the Mariana Islands archipelago, encompassing approximately 212 square miles.
The indigenous peoples of Guam, the Chamorus came to the Marianas over 4,000 years ago. The Chamorus of Guåhan comprise around 37% of the 175,000 population, making them the largest ethnic group on the island, albeit still a minority.
Other ethnic groups include those of the Asian community (Filipinos, Japanese, Koreans, and Chinese to name a few), the outsider Micronesian community (Marshallese, Chuukese, Palauans, Yapese, Kosraens, and Pohnpeians) and Caucasians.
Since 1521, Guåhan has been under the colonial rule of Spain (1521-1898), the United States (1898-1941), Japan (1941-1944) and, again, the U.S. (1944-present) and is the longest colonized possession in the world.
Currently under the U.S., Guåhan is an unorganized unincorporated territory and does not have its own constitution but does have what is known as the Organic Act, which was created in 1950 and granted U.S. citizenship to the Chamorus of Guåhan. Only part of the U.S. Constitution applies to the Chamorus of Guåhan, as the people are not allowed to vote for the U.S. president and do not have a voting delegate in the White House.
Guåhan has been on the U.N. list of Non-Self-Governing Territories (NSGTs) since 1946, meaning that its indigenous Chamorus have yet to practise their right to self-determination.
The Chamorus are currently being challenged by the re-militarization of their islands, which has come to be known as the “military buildup,” a devastating move by the U.S. against the indigenous population and the place they call home.