• Indigenous peoples in India

    Indigenous peoples in India

The Indigenous World 2023: India

In India, 705 ethnic groups are recognised as Scheduled Tribes. In central India, the Scheduled Tribes are usually referred to as Adivasis, which literally means Indigenous Peoples.[1] With an estimated population of 104 million, they comprise 8.6 % of the total population. There are, however, many more ethnic groups that would qualify for Scheduled Tribe status but are not officially recognized and, consequently, the total population of the Scheduled Tribes are higher than the official figure.

The largest concentrations of Indigenous Peoples are found in the seven states of north-east India, and the so-called “central tribal belt” stretching from Rajasthan to West Bengal. India has several laws and constitutional provisions, such as the Fifth Schedule for central India and the Sixth Schedule for certain areas of north-east India, that recognize Indigenous Peoples’ rights to land and self-governance. The laws aimed at protecting Indigenous Peoples have numerous shortcomings and their implementation is far from satisfactory.

The Government of India has increasingly been using the term “Indigenous populations” in official notifications such as the establishment of a High-Level Committee to look into the “social, economic, cultural and linguistic issues of the Indigenous population in the State of Tripura”[2] or in its justification of the Citizenship Amendment Bill. The State government of Jharkhand declared the International Day of the World’s Indigenous Peoples celebrated on 9 August every year worldwide as a state holiday.[3]


 

Special Focus: Forest and wildlife conservation laws and policies detracting from Indigenous Peoples’ rights

Law amendments

The rights of Indigenous Peoples to land and forest resources have been increasingly targeted through forest and wildlife conservation laws and policies.

On 28 June, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) replaced the 2003 Forest Conservation Rules (FCR) under the 1980 Forest Conservation Act (FCA) with a new 2022 version that included several amendments.[4] The new rules give the government the power to allow private developers to clear forests without consulting Indigenous Peoples and forest dwellers – in clear violation of the right to Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) guaranteed under the 2006 Forest Rights Act (FRA) and the 1996 Panchayats Extension to Scheduled Areas (PESA) Act.[5]

In September, in a letter to the MoEFCC, the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST) also raised concerns saying the 2022 FCR would have “serious” impacts on the rights of Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers. The NCST noted that the MoEFCC did not consult the commission on such an important amendment. In its response letter in November to the commission, the MoEFCC asserted that the new rules comply with all provisions, including settlements of rights under the FRA.[6]

On 14 July, the MoEFCC amended the 2006 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Rules to provide exemptions for highway projects in border areas, thermal power plants that run on biomass, the fish handling capacity of ports and harbours, and airport terminal expansions, among others.[7] In other words, such projects will not need to be assessed for their impacts on people and the natural ecosystem, and will not need to seek public consultation, among other issues.[8]

 

Displacement of Indigenous Peoples

Indigenous Peoples’ lands continued to be illegally acquired for business and infrastructure development without FPIC. Further, their rights are being undermined by the government’s diversion of the use of forest lands for industries by diluting conservation laws. Indigenous Peoples thus often face forced eviction, arrest, torture, and killings, and are denied access to the forest and its resources for food in the name of forest and wildlife conservation.

Throughout 2022, some 45,000 Adivasis from 52 villages located in the Ranipur Wildlife Sanctuary in Chitrakoot district, Uttar Pradesh were living in constant fear of eviction after being served eviction notices under the 1927 Indian Forest Act.[9]

On 16 October, hundreds of Indigenous Peoples protested against the process of land acquisition by the Jharkhand Industrial Area Development Authority (JIADA) in West Singhbhum district of Jharkhand without the consent of the Gram Sabhas (village councils). Indigenous Peoples alleged that JIADA had identified approximately 492.64 acres for allocation to industrial development.[10]

Similarly, from 18-21 October, thousands of Indigenous people from 57 villages in Sundargarh district of Odisha organized a 100 km padyatra (march) from Ramabhal to the District Collector/Administrator’s office to protest the illegal allocation of 750 acres of land from the 57 villages. The State government had allocated the land to the Dalmia Cement Company without the consent of the Gram Sabha and without conducting a social impact assessment. Around 60,000 Indigenous people are facing displacement.[11]

On 4 November, the MoEFCC granted final environmental clearance for the Rs 72,000-crore (8.11 billion euro) megaproject on Great Nicobar. Earlier, on 27 October, the ministry granted Stage 1 Forest Clearance for the project.[12] The final environmental clearance was granted based on the environmental impact assessment report, which is replete with inaccuracies and inadequacies, in addition to reflecting a flawed understanding of the tribal communities.[13] It will threaten the survival of two Indigenous tribes –the Shompens and Nicobarese– which are classified as “particularly vulnerable tribal groups”.[14] On 29 April, the UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD Committee) asked the Government of India to submit information, by 15 July, on the measures adopted to prevent any adverse and irreparable impact of the megaprojects on the Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs), including the impact on the ecosystem, on biodiversity, and on the livelihood and existence of the PVTGs, and steps taken to ensure strict observance of laws and policies relating to the protection of the PVTGs. The CERD Committee made the intervention following a complaint filed by ILAI.[15]

On 7 June, 341 forest dwellers from Rampur Ratia village in the Gularia forest in Bahraich district, along with two other villages: Dharampur Ratia and Sampat Purwa in Dudhwa National Park in Lakhimpur Kheri district, were served eviction notices by the Forest Department, claiming they were encroachers.[16]

Approximately 286 tribal families, including 216 families belonging to the Sahariya tribe from villages in Kuno National Park in Sheopur district, Madhya Pradesh and 70 families from Jahangarh village, were facing imminent relocation following the release of wild cheetahs brought from Namibia into the national park on 17 September.[17] The animals were brought in without the FPIC of the community, and they were forced to relocate to a place identified by the State government.

A number of Indigenous people who have been evicted from reserve forests in the name of conservation have yet to be provided any rehabilitation or help from the government. For example, more than 520 Chakma and Garo Indigenous people who were evicted from the Lumding Reserve Forest in Hojai district, Assam, in November 2021, had still not had any support from the State government a full year later.[18] India’s Supreme Court failed to adjudicate its 2019 ruling, which it subsequently stayed, to evict millions of forest-dwelling Indigenous people from their homes across the country at year end. The Court last heard the case on 13 September.[19]

 

Criminalization of livelihood practices

The livelihood of Indigenous Peoples and forest dwellers has been criminalized as they face arrest and detention under various conservation laws, including the 1972 Wildlife (Protection) Act (WPA).

Some of the instances of criminalization of livelihood practices in 2022 included the arrest of 12 Indigenous men under the WPA in Mancherial district, Telangana on charges of encroaching on a tiger reserve in June;[20] the killing of a an Indigenous man and injury of three other Indigenous persons after having been shot by forest officials in the Khadyapura forest area in Vidisha district, Madhya Pradesh as they were collecting wood on 9 August;[21] the illegal detention and torture of three Indigenous persons in Melaghat Tiger Reserve in Amravati district, Maharashtra as they went fishing on 25 August;[22] the arrest and torture of an Indigenous man in a false case of smuggling wild animal meat at Kuzhikanam forest station under Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary in Idukki district, Kerala in September;[23] the torture to death of a 49-year-old Indigenous man at Gundre Forest Range office in Mysuru district, Karnataka following his detention on charges of possessing deer meat on 12 October;[24] and the killing of a 40-year-old Indigenous man and injuries to another after being shot by forest officials for collecting wood in the Khalingduar Reserve Forest in Udalguri district, Assam on 16 November.[25] In one of these cases, the victims or their families were awarded compensation.[26]

 

Legal rights and policy developments

On 15 September, a tripartite peace agreement was signed between the Government of India, the Assam State government and eight armed Adivasi groups in Assam to bring the Adivasi groups into the mainstream and give them political and economic rights.[27]

Further, a number of communities are set to be included in the list of Scheduled Tribes. On 14 September, the Government of India approved a proposal to add the Hatti tribe in the Trans-Giri area of Sirmour district, Himachal Pradesh; the hill tribes of Narikoravan and Kurivikkaran of Tamil Nadu; the Binjhia community in Chhattisgarh; and the Gond community in certain districts of Uttar Pradesh.[28]

 

Violations of Indigenous Peoples’ rights by security forces and armed opposition groups

Security forces continued to be involved in human rights violations in 2022, including the custodial death and torture of Indigenous people.

Some of the cases reported included the torture of a 19-year-old Indigenous man by a police officer after booking him in a case of drink driving in Nirmal district, Telangana on 23 March;[29] the killing of a 48-year-old Indigenous man in judicial custody due to alleged torture after he was arrested on charges of brewing illicit liquor in Tiruvannamalai district, Tamil Nadu on 27 April;[30] the torture of seven Indigenous persons while in police custody for carrying farm tools in Ahmedabad district, Gujarat in July;[31] the torturing to death of a 35-year-old Indigenous man after his arrest while travelling in a vehicle at Gelekey police station in Sivasagar district, Assam on 21 August;[32] the killing of a 29-year-old Indigenous man due to alleged torture in custody at the Railway police station after his arrest in robbery cases in Pune district, Maharashtra on 24 August;[33] the killing of a 19-year-old Indigenous man who died due to alleged torture in police custody after his arrest in a case of looting in Indore district, Madhya Pradesh on 3 September;[34] the killing of a 35-year-old Indigenous man who died in police custody following his detention in a theft case at Roing police station in Lower Dibang Valley district, Arunachal Pradesh on 17 September;[35] and the torture of an Indigenous man in custody during questioning in connection with a murder case in Seoni district, Madhya Pradesh on 30 September and 12 October.[36]

A number of Indigenous Peoples in the North-Eastern region and the Naxalite-affected areas in the “tribal belt” were victims of human rights abuses, including extrajudicial killings by security forces. The incidents included the torture of a 42-year-old Indigenous man at Garu police station in Latehar district, Jharkhand on 23 August after he was picked up by police on suspicion of aiding Maoists;[37] the killing of two Indigenous men by the Special Operations Group during an alleged encounter with Maoists in Malipadar forest in Koraput district, Odisha on 11 November;[38] and the killings of five tribals from Meghalaya[39] in an alleged unprovoked shooting by Assam Police near the Assam-Meghalaya border on 22 November.[40]

Armed opposition groups, in particular the Maoists or Naxals, continued to be responsible for gross violations of international humanitarian law for the killings of Indigenous persons on charges of being “police informers”, or simply for not obeying their diktats (orders). Those killed included a 32-year-old tribal man at Upargumu village in Kandhamal district, Odisha on 14 February;[41] two tribals in Gadchiroli district, Maharashtra on 14 April;[42] a tribal in Balaghat, Madhya Pradesh on 6 August;[43] a tribal-elected representative of Kurnapally village in Bhadradri Kothagudem district, Telangana on 29 August;[44] a tribal from Mababadi village in Kandhamal district, Odisha on 23 October;[45] and a tribal from Kondapur village in Mulugu district, Telangana.[46]

 

Situation of Indigenous women

The individual and collective rights of Indigenous women and girls are regularly denied or violated in private and public spaces. Sexual violence, trafficking, killing or being branded a witch, militarization or State violence, and the impact of development-induced displacement remain major issues faced by women and girls.

In its latest report “Crime in India 2021”, published on 29 August 2022, the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) recorded a total of 1,324 cases of rape against Indigenous women and girls in 2021.[47] Sexual assaults were perpetrated by both civilians and security forces.

The trend continued in 2022 with several reported cases. On 1 January, two Indigenous minors were raped in Ravada village in Vizianagaram district, Andhra Pradesh by a 35-year-old man posing as a police officer.[48] On 10 July, a 14-year-old Indigenous girl was gang-raped and murdered by nine persons in Goudapada village in Phulbani district, Odisha. All nine accused were arrested by police.[49] On 2 September, a 14-year-old Indigenous girl was allegedly raped and killed by a non-tribal in Mufassil police station in Dumka district, Jharkhand.[50] On 4 October, a 50-year-old Indigenous widow was gang-raped in Serengdag area in Lohardaga district, Jharkhand by two personnel of the India Reserve Battalion.[51] On 6 October, a 40-year-old Indigenous woman was allegedly tortured in custody at Kanjarda police outpost in Neemuch district, Madhya Pradesh by a woman police officer for filing a complaint against her for not taking action over a complaint the Indigenous woman filed against her husband.[52]

Witch-hunting, which remains one of the most common forms of violence against Indigenous women in India, continued to be reported in 2022, including the killing of an Adivasi woman and her husband in Baksa district, Assam in April;[53] the killing of a 45-year-old Adivasi woman by a mob in Mohanpur village in Kokrajhar district, Assam in May;[54] the killing of a 45-year-old woman in West Singhbhum district, Jharkhand on 3 July;[55] the killing of a 70-year-old woman in Khuri village in Garhwa district, Jharkhand on 3 July;[56] the killing of a 70-year-old woman in Mayurbhanj district, Odisha on 16 July;[57] the killing of a 56-year-old Adivasi widow in Kokrajhar district, Assam on 24 July;[58] the killing of a 35-year-old Indigenous woman in Jamun Toli area in Ranchi district, Jharkhand on 24 July;[59] and the killing of two Indigenous women, aged 45 and 66, in Ranchi district, Jharkhand on 4 September.[60]

 

Conditions of internally-displaced Indigenous people

The Government of India does not have any data on the number of Indigenous Peoples internally displaced by industrial and infrastructure projects or armed conflicts.

The resettlement of the Bru (Reang) people from Mizoram in Tripura had not been completed by the end of 2022 and the deadline for their resettlement has been extended to February 2023.[61]

The Indigenous people who sought shelter in Telangana from Chhattisgarh due to the conflict between the Salwa Judum and Maoists in 2005 remain at risk of eviction. On 27 November, the Forest Department in Telangana issued notices to 40 families of the Guthikoya tribe, who have been living on forest land, to vacate the area in Kothagudem division in Bhadradri-Kothagudem district.[62]

Tribals displaced by development projects continued to be denied rehabilitation. On 16 October, some 64 tribal families who were displaced after they were forced to vacate their ancestral homes due to the construction of a dam on the Yamuna River in Lohari village in Dehradun district, Uttarakhand in April 2022 were not provided any rehabilitation or compensation.[63]

 

NAGALIM

The Nagas inhabit a territory known as Nagalim, which is situated between China, India and Myanmar. They occupy an area of approximately 120,000 km2. The Nagas comprise several tribes living primarily in the north-eastern region of India and north-western Myanmar.

Naga traditional concept of conservation

Since time immemorial, Nagas have always shared a symbiotic relationship with nature[64] and this is found in their folklore, songs, culture and tradition. Even in the midst of the Naga’s heaviest tension – the conflict and war with India for self-determination – nature came to their rescue in the form of shelter and food as most Nagas were driven out of their homes, villages and forests. Nature and conservation are thus of the utmost value to the Nagas. As such, the conservation of forests and its associated biodiversity are given the utmost priority. Conservation has been practised since the dawn of Naga civilization and can be found embedded in their culture and practices.

For instance, we see the practice of community reserved forests in almost every Naga village, which act as reservoirs for their livelihood. Likewise, we also see the practice of protecting particular species of trees, animals, etc. For example, large trees around villages have never been cut down and certain animals and birds have never been hunted because of their value or association with human beings. We see the essence of conservation ethos in their folklore and traditional practices, practised not necessarily from a climate change perspective but from a spiritual and social responsibility perspective.

 

Monoculture: A threat to biodiversity conservation

In the name of economic growth, government and privately-initiated monoculture plantations have found their place securely in the region. As such, today we have large tracts of land given over to Rubber and Teak, Duabanga (Kokon) plantations all over Nagaland. At present, the focus has shifted to oil palm cultivation. According to the records, the state has 5,423 ha spread across the state under oil palm cultivation. Further, the government is of the view that, “oil palm takes up massive space… it requires a huge space for oil palm cultivation and the ministry is trying to increase area in the Northeast region; in a hectare, hardly 142 crops can be planted”.[65] In their own words, “oil palm requires massive space”, and thus acts as a direct threat to land and biodiversity.

It is to be noted that the government signed an MoU with Shivasais Oil Palm Ltd in 2014 and has assured the farmers that a processing unit and market for the same will be developed. As of 2023, however, nothing has been done leading one poor farmer in Dimapur to lament, “We eat the oil palm seed raw”.[66]

 

One year on since the Oting Massacre

“People tell us to forgive and forget. But whom do we forgive? First we have to be told that these were the people responsible for the incident,” Chenwang Konyak, a cancer survivor who also suffered a serious brain stroke after his son’s death in the Oting Massacre, said as he awaits justice.[67]

On 4 December 2021, six coal miners returning from work were killed in a botched ambush by the security forces at Oting village of Mon district, while seven others were gunned down when angry villagers scuffled with them after discovering the bullet-riddled bodies of the labourers on an army truck. One security personnel was also killed in the melee. Another civilian was killed when a mob attacked an Assam Rifles camp at Mon town the next day.[68]

Since the Oting incident, the demand for removal of the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act (AFSPA) from Nagaland has gained voice and, as a result, AFPSA has been removed from certain parts of Nagaland with effect from 1 April 2022 although it is still active in Mon district.[69]

 

 

Tejang Chakma is Head of Research with the Indigenous Lawyers Association of India.

Dr. Martemjen belongs to the Indigenous Ao Naga community of Nagaland, is a member of the Naga Peoples Movement for Human Rights (NPMHR) and author of the book “Biodiversity Conservation, Indigenous Knowledge and Practices: a Naga perspective”.

 

This article is part of the 37th edition of The Indigenous World, a yearly overview produced by IWGIA that serves to document and report on the developments Indigenous Peoples have experienced. Find The Indigenous World 2023 in full here.

 

 

Notes and references 

[1] Since the Scheduled Tribes or “tribals” are considered India’s Indigenous Peoples, these terms are used interchangeably in this text.

[2] Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs, North East Division. “Constitution of High Level Committee to look into social, economic, cultural and linguistic issues of the indigenous population in the State of Tripura.” 7 September 2018, https://mha.gov.in/sites/default/files/filefield_paths/HLC_Tripura.PDF

[3] Mukesh, Asrp. “World Indigenous People’s Day: Jharkhand CM declares public holiday, Congress plans grand celebration.” The Times of India, 9 August 2020, https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/ranchi/world-indigenous-peoples-day-cm-declares-public-holiday-cong-plans-grand-celebrations/articleshow/77438738.cms

[4] The Forest (Conservation) Rules, 2022 is available at https://parivesh.nic.in/writereaddata/FCRule2022Notificationdated28062022.pdf

[5] Grover, Samarth. “What Are Forest Conservation Rules 2022? Why Are They Being Criticised?” The Quint, 11 July 2022, https://www.thequint.com/climate-change/what-are-forest-conservation-rules-2022-why-are-they-being-criticised#read-more

[6] “Have not taken any stand on new forest conservation rules: National ST body chief.” The Print, 3 January 2023, https://theprint.in/india/have-not-taken-any-stand-on-new-forest-conservation-rules-national-st-body-chief/1295876/

[7] Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India. “EIA Notification, 2006 and subsequent amendments”. S.O.3194(E), 14 July 2022, http://environmentclearance.nic.in/report/EIA_Notifications.aspx

[8] Perinchery, Aathira. “Now, Highway Projects Near Borders Don’t Need Environmental Clearance.” The Wire, 26 July 2022, https://thewire.in/government/now-highway-projects-near-borders-dont-need-environmental-clearance

[9] Alim Jafri, Abdul. “UP Polls: 'Where Will We Go?' Ask Tribals in Chitrakoot on Being Served Eviction Notices.” Newsclick, 1 February 2022, https://www.newsclick.in/UP-Polls-Where-Will-We-Go-Ask-Tribals-Chitrakoot-Being-Served-Eviction-Notices

[10] Bisoee, Animesh. “Tribals say ‘no’ to land acquisition.” The Telegraph, 19 October 2022, https://www.telegraphindia.com/jharkhand/tribals-say-no-to-land-acquisition/cid/1892868

[11] “'Won't Give an Inch to Dalmia Cement': 5,000 Adivasis in Odisha Protest 'Illegal' Land Acquisition.” The Wire, 25 October 2022, https://thewire.in/rights/sundergarh-tribal-protest-footmarch

[12] Sekhsaria, Pankaj. “‘Planned destruction of Adivasi culture and lives’: Experts raise alarm over Great Nicobar project.” The Scroll, 25 November 2022, https://scroll.in/article/1038263/planned-destruction-of-adivasi-culture-and-lives-experts-raise-alarm-over-great-nicobar-project

[13] Ibid.

[14] Ibid.

[15] Shepherd, Verene. Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. “Action Letter.” 29 April 2022, https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=INT%2FCERD%2FALE%2FInd%2F9556&Lang=en

[16] Singh, Manoj. “UP Forest Dwellers Accuse Forest Department of Denying Them Their Rights.” The Wire, 23 August 2022, https://thewire.in/rights/up-forest-dwellers-accuse-forest-department-of-denying-them-their-rights

[17] Asif Siddiqui, Mohammad. “The last holdouts of Kuno: Taking the forest out of the Sahariyas”, Daijiworld, 6 December 2022, https://www.daijiworld.com/news/newsDisplay?newsID=1026617

[18] Chakma Reporter. “Assam: One Year After Forcible Eviction, Displaced Chakmas Live in Absolute Destitution.” YouTube, 15 November 2022, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WMGyai7cD70&t=582s

[19] Supreme Court of India. “Writ Petition (Civil) No.109/2008.” https://main.sci.gov.in/supremecourt/2008/8640/8640_2008_5_102_38168_Order_13-Sep-2022.pdf

[20] Sushil Rao, Ch. “Telangana: 12 tribal women arrested over attempt to encroach forest land.” The Times of India, 4 June 2022, https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/hyderabad/12-tribal-women-arrested-over-attempt-to-encroach-forest-land/articleshow/91996498.cms

[21] Indigenous Lawyers Association for India. “Madhya Pradesh: Intervention Made Against Killing Of One Tribal And Injuries To Three Others.” 22 August 2022, http://www.indigenouslawyers.org/interventions/madhya-pradesh-intervention-made-against-killing-of-one-tribal-and-injuries-to-three-others/

[22] Singharia, Kanishka. “Tribal men burnt with hot bars for illegal fishing in Maharashtra’s Amravati.” Hindustan Times, 26 August 2022, https://www.hindustantimes.com/cities/mumbai-news/tribal-men-burnt-with-hot-bars-for-illegal-fishing-in-maharashtra-s-amravati-101661525579914.html

[23] “False case against tribal youth: Panel seeks action.” The Times of India, 3 December 2022, https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/kochi/false-case-against-tribal-youth-panel-seeks-action/articleshow/95953212.cms

[24] Karthik K K. “Karnataka: Tribal man in foresters' custody dies of suspected torture in HD Kote.” The New Indian Express, 13 October 2022, https://www.newindianexpress.com/states/karnataka/2022/oct/13/karnataka-tribal-man-in-foresters-custody-dies-of-suspected-torture-in-hd-kote-2507545.html

[25] Khan, Shajid. “Assam: Forest guards shoot Adivasi woodcutter dead in Udalguri”, The North East Now, 17 November 2022, https://nenow.in/north-east-news/assam/assam-forest-guards-shoot-adivasi-woodcutter-dead-in-udalguri.html

[26] Tiwari, Vishnukant. “1 Dead as MP Forest Officers Allegedly Open Fire at Tribals in Vidisha, Probe On.” The Quint, 10 August 2022, https://www.thequint.com/news/india/mp-vidisha-forest-officials-kill-tribal-injure-others-dakshin-lateri-forest-range#read-more

[27] Ministry of Home Affairs, Press Release,15 September 2022, https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1859665

[28] Lakshman, Abhinay. “Explained | The process of inclusion or exclusion from the Scheduled Tribes list.” The Hindu, 19 September 2022, https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/explained-the-process-of-inclusion-or-exclusion-from-the-scheduled-tribes-list/article65906246.ece

[29] “Tribal youngster allegedly beaten by SI ends life in Nirma.” Telangana Today, 24 March 2022, https://telanganatoday.com/tribal-youngster-allegedly-beaten-by-si-ends-life-in-nirmal

[30] Vaitheeswaran B. “Tamil Nadu man dies in custody, kin blames police”, The New Indian Express, 30 April 2022, https://www.newindianexpress.com/states/tamil-nadu/2022/apr/30/tamil-naduman-dies-in-custody-kin-blames-police-2448097.html

[31] “NHRC Orders CP To Act In Atrocity Plaint”, Ahmedabad Mirror, 22 September 2022, https://www.ahmedabadmirror.com/nhrc-orders-cp-to-act-in-atrocity-plaint/81845040.html

[32] Indigenous Lawyers Association of India, “Complaint dated August 25, 2022 filed with National Human Rights Commission”, Case No. 301/3/15/2022-AD.

[33] Ibid.

[34] “MP: Tribal man arrested in loot case dies in custody; five cops suspended.” The Print, 4 September 2022, https://theprint.in/india/mp-tribal-man-arrested-in-loot-case-dies-in-custody-five-cops-suspended/1115738/

[35] Riba, Karyir. “Two custodial deaths in Sept as one dies by suicide in Roing police station”, The Arunachal Times, 3 October 2022, https://arunachaltimes.in/index.php/2022/10/03/two-custodialdeaths-in-sept-as-one-dies-by-suicide-in-roingpolice-station/

[36] “Bhopal: Tribals arrested during protest against police atrocities.” The Free Press Journal, 23 October 2022, https://www.freepressjournal.in/bhopal/bhopal-tribals-arrested-during-protest-against-police-atrocities

[37] Bisoee, Animesh. “No FIR against guilty cops over Latehar ‘torture’ yet.” The Telegraph, 31 August 2022, https://www.telegraphindia.com/india/no-fir-against-guilty-cops-over-latehar-torture-yet/cid/1883542

[38] “NHRC seeks report on Koraput ‘fake' encounter.” The New Indian Express, 21 November 2022, https://www.newindianexpress.com/states/odisha/2022/nov/21/nhrc-seeks-report-on-koraput-fake-encounter-2520451.html

[39] “Meghalaya-Assam border firing: Fresh protests break out; Shah assures CBI probe.” The Indian Express, 24 November 2022, https://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/northeast/2022/nov/24/meghalaya-assam-border-firing-fresh-protests-break-out-shah-assures-cbi-probe-2521776.html

[40] “Assam Police used ‘unprovoked, uncontrolled’ force: Himanta on border violence”, The Arunachal Times, 24 November 2022, https://arunachaltimes.in/index.php/2022/11/24/assam-police-used-unprovoked-uncontrolled-force-himanta-on-border-violence/

[41] “Suspected Maoists kill tribal man suspecting him to be police informer.” The Print, 16 February 2022, https://theprint.in/india/suspected-maoists-kill-tribal-man-suspecting-him-to-be-police-informer/833328/

[42] Bose, Soumitra. “Maharashtra: Two tribals kidnapped, murdered by Maoists in south Gadchiroli.” The Times of India, 14 April 2022, https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/nagpur/maharashtra-two-tribals-kidnapped-murdered-by-maoists-in-south-gadchiroli/articleshow/90849075.cms

[43] “Maoists kill villager on suspicion of being police informer in MP’s Balaghat.” Telangana Today, 6 August 2022, https://telanganatoday.com/maoists-kill-villager-on-suspicion-of-being-police-informer-in-mps-balaghat

[44] Sridhar, P. “Man killed by suspected Maoists in Telangana’s Charla mandal.” The Hindu, 30 August 2022, https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/telangana/man-killed-by-suspected-maoists-in-telanganas-charla-mandal/article65829099.ece

[45] “Maoists torch vehicles, equipment in Odisha’s Kandhamal.” The Hindu, 25 October 2022, https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/maoists-torch-vehicles-equipment-in-odishas-kandhamal/article66052987.ece

[46] “Telangana: Tribal man killed by Maoists over allegedly being police informer.” The New Indian Express, 10 November 2022, https://www.newindianexpress.com/states/telangana/2022/nov/10/telangana-tribal-man-killed-by-maoists-over-allegedly-being-police-informer-2516902.html

[47] National Crime Records Bureau, Ministry of Home Affairs. “Crime in India 2021. Statistics Volume-II.” https://ncrb.gov.in/sites/default/files/CII-2021/CII_2021Volume%202.pdf

[48] “Criminal poses as cop, allegedly rapes two minors in Andhra's Vizianagaram.” The New Indian Express, 3 January 2022, https://www.newindianexpress.com/states/andhra-pradesh/2022/jan/03/criminal-poses-as-cop-allegedly-rapes-two-minors-in-andhras-vizianagram-2402456.html

[49] “Nine held for gang rape and murder in Odisha’s Goudapada village.” The New Indian Express, 25 July 2022, https://www.newindianexpress.com/states/odisha/2022/jul/25/nine-held-for-gang-rapeand-murder-in-odishasgoudapada-village-2480416.html

[50] “Amid row over Dumka girls' deaths, bodies of two women recovered near Ranchi; likely murdered over witchcraft suspicion.” The New Indian Express, 5 September 2022, https://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/2022/sep/05/amid-row-over-dumka-girls-deaths-bodies-of-twowomen-recovered-near-ranchilikely-murdered-over-w-2495070.html

[51] Sahay, Sanjay. “Lohardaga woman who was ‘raped’ by constables serious.” The Times of India, 8 October 2022, https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/ranchi/lohardaga-woman-who-was-raped-by-constables-serious/articleshow/94716204.cms

[52] “MP: FIR against female cop in Manasa for assaulting and threatening tribal woman.” The Free Press Journal, 10 October 2022, https://www.freepressjournal.in/indore/mp-fir-against-female-cop-in-manasa-for-assaulting-and-threatening-tribal-woman

[53] “Assam: Adivasi couple killed over witchcraft suspicion in Baksa.” NorthEast Now, 12 April 2022, https://nenow.in/north-east-news/assam/assam-adivasi-couple-killed-over-witchcraft-suspicion-in-baksa.html

[54] Choudhury, Ratnadip. “Assam Woman Killed, Hanged From Tree Over Witchcraft Fears: Cops.” NDTV, 9 May 2022, https://www.ndtv.com/india-news/kokrajhar-witchcraft-case-assam-tribal-woman-killed-hanged-from-tree-over-witchcraft-fears-2959853

[55] “Jharkhand: 45-year-old tribal woman killed on suspicion of witchcraft in West Singhbhum district.” First Post, 6 July 2022, https://www.firstpost.com/india/jharkhand-45-year-old-tribal-woman-killed-on-suspicion-of-witchcraft-in-west-singhbhum-district-10878121.html

[56] “Jharkhand: 70-year-old woman beaten to death over ‘witchcraft.” The Indian Express, 5 July 2022, https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/delhi/jharkhand-woman-beaten-to-death-witchcraft-8009347/

[57] “Elderly Tribal Woman Hacked To Death Over Witchcraft Suspicion.” Outlook, 17 July 2022, https://www.outlookindia.com/national/elderly-tribal-woman-hacked-to-death-over-witchcraft-suspicion-news-209842

[58] “Assam: Widow Thrashed To Death Over Suspicions Of Practising Witchcraft.” The Sentinel, 24 July 2022, https://www.sentinelassam.com/north-east-india-news/assam-news/assam-widow-thrashed-to-death-over-suspicions-of-practising-witchcraft-604190

[59] “35-yr-old killed over witchcraft charges in Ranchi.” The Times of India, 24 July 2022, https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/ranchi/35-yr-old-killed-over-witchcraft-charges/articleshowprint/93081392.cms

[60] “Amid row over Dumka girls' deaths, bodies of two women recovered near Ranchi; likely murdered over witchcraft suspicion.” The New Indian Express, 5 September 2022, https://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/2022/sep/05/amid-row-over-dumka-girls-deaths-bodies-of-twowomen-recovered-near-ranchilikely-murdered-over-w-2495070.html

[61] “Tripura: Deadline for Bru resettlement extended till February 23.” NorthEast Now, 10 November 2022, https://nenow.in/north-east-news/tripura/tripura-deadline-bru-resettlement-extended-february-23.html

[62] Sadam, Rishika. “After Telangana range officer’s killing, Guthikoya tribe faces boycott, pressure to leave forest.” The Print, 29 November 2022, https://theprint.in/india/after-telangana-range-officers-killing-guthikoya-tribe-faces-boycott-pressure-to-leave-forest/1240180/

[63] Mishra, Jigyasa. “Uttarakhand: Six Months On, Tribals Displaced For Vyasi Dam Still Await Rehabilitation.” India Spend, 16 October 2022, https://www.indiaspend.com/land-rights/uttarakhand-six-months-on-tribals-displaced-for-vyasi-dam-still-await-rehabilitation-838936

[64] For example, the Ao Nagas believed that they learn how to sing from a song tree. This tree was unique in the sense that it became a man by night and tree by day. As a result, they never use to cut the song tree unless necessary and without proper propitiation.

[65] Rhakho, Reyivolü. “Nagaland to extend oil palm plantation area in 8 districts.” Eastern Mirror, 2 September 2022, Nagaland to extend oil palm plantation area in 8 districts - Eastern Mirror (easternmirrornagaland.com)

[66] “Nagaland sees scope in oil palm production; 2000 hectare covered in 6 districts.” Eastern Mirror, 24 September 2020, Nagaland sees scope in oil palm production; 2000 hectare covered in 6 districts - Eastern Mirror (easternmirrornagaland.com)

[67] “Nagaland: For Families of Oting victims and survivors, election just another ‘event’.” The New Indian Express, 19 February 2023, Nagaland: For families of Oting victims and survivors, election just another 'event'- The New Indian Express

[68] Ibid.

[69] Ibid.

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