• Indigenous peoples in Nicaragua

    Indigenous peoples in Nicaragua

    There are seven indigenous peoples of Nicaragua. Nicaragua has adopted the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and ratified ILO Convention 169 in 2010.
  • Peoples

    7 indigenous peoples can be found in Nicaragua
  • Rights

    2007: Nicaragua adopts the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
    2010: Nicaragua ratifies ILO Convention 169

The Indigenous World 2021: Nicaragua

Three of Nicaragua’s seven Indigenous Peoples live in the Pacific, central and northern regions: the Chorotega (221,000), the Cacaopera or Matagalpa (97,500), the Ocanxiu or Sutiaba (49,000) and the Nahoa or Nahuatl (20,000). In addition, the Caribbean (or Atlantic) coast is inhabited by the Miskitu (150,000), the Sumu or Mayangna (27,000) and the Rama (2,000). Other peoples who also enjoy collective rights, according to the Political Constitution of Nicaragua (1987), are the Afro-descendants, also known as “ethnic communities” in national legislation. These include the Creole or Kriol (43,000) and the Garífuna (2,500).

The Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) came to power in Nicaragua in 1979, subsequently having to confront the U.S.-funded “Contra” rebel groups. Peasant farmers from the Pacific and the Indigenous Peoples of the Caribbean Coast participated in the Contra. In 1987, following a friendly settlement of the conflict through the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR), and in order to put an end to this Indigenous resistance, the FSLN created the Autonomous Regions of the Northern Caribbean Coast (RACCN) and Southern Caribbean Coast (RACCS), based on a Statute of Autonomy (Law No. 28). Following the judgment of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IA Court) in the case of the Mayangna (Sumo) community of Awas Tingni v Nicaragua in 2001, Law No. 445 on the Communal Property Regime of the Indigenous Peoples and Ethnic Communities of the Autonomous Regions of the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua and of the Bocay, Coco, Indio and Maíz rivers was issued, recognising these communities’ right to self-government and creating a procedure for the titling of their territories. The state began the titling process in 2005 for the 23 Indigenous and Afro-descendant territories in the RACCN and RACCS, culminating in the issuing of property titles. In 2007, Nicaragua voted in favour of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and in 2010 ratified ILO Convention 169. The Alliance of Indigenous and Afro-descendant Peoples of Nicaragua (APIAN) was formed in 2015.

 

State’s failure to provide protection from COVID-19

The Nicaraguan government initially denied the severity of COVID-19 and failed to comply with World Health Organization (WHO) measures, in response to which WHO publicly expressed its concern.[1] The IACHR and its Special Rapporteurs on Freedom of Expression and Economic, Social, Cultural and Environmental Rights (OSFREFE and OSRESCER) also expressed concern at the absence of reliable information and the persistence of official misinformation on the scope of the pandemic in Nicaragua.[2] As protection measures are a right, the State of Nicaragua has a duty to provide them, in accordance with the duty to guarantee human rights.

President Daniel Ortega was largely absent from the public eye during the height of the pandemic and, in the absence of leadership, civil society formed the Observatorio Ciudadano COVID-19 [COVID-19 Civic Observatory] to inform and guide citizens on protective measures while also quantifying casualties. With a population of 6.5 million inhabitants, Nicaragua was under-reporting its deaths. The Observatory had reported 11,993 suspected cases and 2,867 deaths as of 30 December 2020 while the Ministry of Health had reported only 6,046 suspected cases and 165 deaths. According to the Observatory, there were 254 deaths in the RACCS and 211 in the RACN, each accounting for 2% of total deaths.[3]

In April, after the Government of Nicaragua had already acknowledged the first cases of COVID-19, the Indigenous deputy Brooklyn Rivera, from the Indigenous party YATAMA (Yapti Tasba Masraka Nanih Aslatakanka, “Children of Mother Earth”), stated as follows in Nicaragua’s National Assembly: “So far, we know of no particular measures for our peoples”,[4] referring to the fact that the state had not issued any measures related to informing or protecting Indigenous and Afro-descendant peoples during the pandemic. Indigenous and Afro-descendant peoples live in some of the poorest and most remote municipalities in the country and so, in most cases, those affected by the pandemic would have to travel for several hours to reach a hospital and, in some cases, would only be able to reach one by river.

Indigenous Peoples' actions to address the pandemic

This lack of protection and adequate information led the Indigenous and Afro-descendant territorial and communal governments to take their own self-protection measures, decreeing a lockdown and regulating transport, movements and alcohol consumption, among other things. With an area of approximately 27,260 km² (21.1% of the national territory) and a multi-ethnic population of 408,326 inhabitants, the Regional Government in Bluefields (57,000 inhabitants) decreed a voluntary lockdown in the RACCS. In the territory of the Twelve Indigenous and Afro-descendant Communities of the Pearl Lagoon Basin, a group of members (resident abroad) raised funds to provide the community with medical materials and equipment to face up to the pandemic.[5] The territories of Sandy Bay and Karawala, at the mouth of the Rio Grande de Matagalpa declared themselves in lockdown.[6]

By June, official data indicated that the pandemic had infected 1,118 people and killed 46. Meanwhile, the Observatory had recorded 4,217 cases and 980 deaths. The Rama and Kriol Territorial Government (RTG-K) therefore declared its territory under lockdown and, in its resolution, requested that “the authorities of the State of Nicaragua respect the preventive measures related to the COVID-19 pandemic”.[7] However, following a visit by officials from the Ministry of Family Economy (MEFFCA) to the Kriol community of Monkey Point, several community members developed symptoms of COVID-19, and one person died.[8] In September, when the Observatory reported at least 240 cases in the RACCS, members of the Rama Indigenous people of Rama Cay (Cayo Rama), where 40% of the Rama people live and where there is only one pharmacy and a small health centre, said they were “overwhelmed by fear and a lack of economic resources” due to the state’s secrecy and lack of funding to deal with the pandemic.[9]

Data from the Observatory from between 18 and 24 June also confirmed 124 suspected cases in the RACCN, which has an area of 32,159 square kilometres covering 25% of the national territory and a multi-ethnic population of 250,000 people. This included 66 deaths, equivalent to more than half of the number of cases. In the only RACCN hospital, located in Bilwi (85,000 inhabitants), seat of the Regional Government, there were only two ventilators available out of the 160 existing in Nicaragua.[10]

In September, Mayangna Indigenous leaders complained that the regional authorities were not providing any information or health support to prevent COVID-19 in their communities. Quite the contrary, they were promoting a massive party-political activity during the traditional commemoration of the Mayangna Nation of the Suda in the Bosawás Biosphere Reserve. The officials seized the limelight of the commemoration to transport people from the nine Mayangna communities without any kind of prevention measures, thus creating a crowd.[11]

The pandemic has revealed even more clearly that respiratory infections can spread more rapidly among Indigenous and Afro-descendant peoples due to the poor health and sanitary conditions in which they live; and particularly due to their remote and difficult access, the lack of drinking water and the contamination of the rivers from which they draw their water for human consumption due to mining activities, deforestation or monocropping on their traditional territories. This is above all due to the emergency situation created by the systematic dispossession to which the Miskitu and Mayangna Indigenous Peoples have been subjected for the last decade in the mining triangle around Bosawás and the Coco River basin (Wangki), which has exacerbated the health crisis caused by COVID-19.

Ongoing threats not halted by health crisis

The Indigenous Peoples Unit of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) issued a document containing 12 recommendations in which it urged states to address the pandemic from an intercultural approach, recognising the vulnerable situation of these peoples. It also warned of the need to avoid land dispossession since “some actors may take advantage of the present crisis”,[12] as is clearly happening in Nicaragua. Despite the global emergency created by the pandemic, there were around 10 armed attacks on Indigenous territories[13] during 2020.[14]

The state is implementing a covert policy of settling the Indigenous territories of the Caribbean Coast of Nicaragua, which commenced several decades ago with the in-migration of non-indigenous people and the advance of the agricultural frontier and extensive cattle ranching onto these territories, to the detriment of the forest and the traditional ways of life of the Indigenous people.[15] The government has also implemented a policy of natural resource extraction in the territories titled to these peoples.[16] Through companies such as Alba-forestal, which monocrops trees like the African Palm,[17] they are plundering the forests.[18] Eniminas is an example of a national company that promotes mining operations,[19] in most cases without the consent of these peoples.

Along with extractivism, land grabbing is being undertaken by groups of armed non-indigenous settlers who invade Indigenous territories and attack these peoples’ settlements, destroying them and killing the residents. They are constantly threatening to kidnap, rape, injure and kill community members who are accessing the fishing, hunting, cultivation and fruit gathering areas of their own traditional territories; they mainly threaten women and children who are collecting water for their families. The elderly, women and children are thus constantly forced to flee into the forest and spend days in hiding because of threats from settlers. The Indigenous people live in fear and violence, resulting in very high levels of psychological stress. And because of a lack of access to the lands on which they depend both spiritually and economically – their economy is subsistence farming and the lands provide them with food – the Indigenous people are now suffering from food insecurity, malnutrition and even forced displacement.[20]

In 2020 alone, these attacks left 13 dead; 10 missing; 3 wounded (one of them paraplegic and another with an amputated leg); and 2 kidnapped. This is in addition to the direct violence against Miskitu girls: one was injured in the face[21] and another kidnapped on 14 July.[22] There have also been 31 victims of direct physical attacks and 26 houses torched. These facts contrast with a total of 34 Miskitu Indigenous people killed, 44 injured, 25 kidnapped and 4 missing between 2011 and 2018.[23]

Attacks on the Miskitu and Mayangna Indigenous Peoples

The Bosawás Biosphere Reserve, recognised by the “Man and the Biosphere Programme” in October 1997 as a UNESCO World Heritage site, has traditionally been home to the Mayangna and Miskitu communities. And yet, since 2015, systematic attacks have been perpetrated against them, also result in significant destruction of Bosawás.[24]

Throughout this time, the IACHR has granted precautionary measures and the Inter-American Court has granted provisional measures in favour of the Indigenous communities under attack. The Nicaraguan state has not complied with these measures, however, and has even denied that the attacks are occurring.[25]

Attack on Alal goes unpunished

The attacks have been escalating. The worst one was reported on 29 January 2020 in the 800-member Mayangna community of Alal in the heart of Bosawás. This community was attacked by 80 heavily armed settlers with the result that 16 homes were burned, 10 people went missing, and four men from the Indigenous community were killed and two wounded, one of whom was left paraplegic as a result of the gunshot wounds he received during the attack. The settlers also slaughtered the Indigenous people’s livestock.[26]

The attack on Alal was unlike previous attacks, however, because the very night it happened, its leaders and authorities took to social media and the independent press to call for help. Indigenous leaders also reported that 80 men from the Kucalón gang were responsible.[27]

Meanwhile, pro-government media outlets published statements from public officials of Indigenous origin attempting to minimise the impact of Alal's attack. The National Police also issued three press releases between 30 January and 1 February that failed to put the event into any context,[28] even though social media was flooded with photographs and statements about the massacre from the community of Alal itself.

After the attack on Alal, members of the National Police and the Nicaraguan Army occupied the community for several weeks and violently removed the hunting weapons and machetes these people use for their work in the field. Similar complaints are constantly made against the authorities by the Indigenous communities of Bosawás and Waspam-Río Coco.[29] Although the National Police announced the arrest of a member of the Kucalón gang, Indigenous leaders denounced the fact that he had later been released.[30]

Recent forced displacements

On 3 September, 30 families – some 180 people – from the Sangni Laya community were likewise forcibly displaced by threats from armed settlers, making them victims of a violation of their physical, psychological and moral integrity. Furthermore, along with other members of these Indigenous Peoples, their economic, social and cultural rights are being violated.[31] And yet despite the denunciations and national and international appeals to the Nicaraguan state,[32] this has been happening to the Miskitu and Mayangna peoples since 2015 with total impunity.[33]

 

Dr. María Luisa Acosta is President of the Academy of Sciences of Nicaragua (ACN), and Associate Professor at the Faculty of Humanities and Department of Legal Sciences, Universidad Centroamericana (UCA), Managua, Nicaragua. She is Coordinator of the Centre for Legal Assistance to Indigenous Peoples (CALPI). Contact: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; http://calpi-nicaragua.com

This article is part of the 35th edition of The Indigenous World, a yearly overview produced by IWGIA that serves to document and report on the developments Indigenous Peoples have experienced.  Find The Indigenous World 2021 in full here

 Notes and references

[1] IA Court. “IACHR and OSRESCER Express Serious Concern About the Human Rights Situation During the Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic in Nicaragua”. 8 April 2020, accessed 8 January 2021. Available at https://www.oas.org/en/iachr/media_center/PReleases/2020/072.asp

[2] IACHR. “IACHR, OSFRE, and OSRESCER Express Serious Concern Over Violations of the Right to Information in Nicaragua and the Impact of These on Access to Health During the COVID-19 Pandemic”. 27 May 2020, accessed 8 January 2021. Available at https://www.oas.org/en/iachr/media_center/PReleases/2020/119.asp

[3] El Observatorio COVID-19 Nicaragua. Accessed on 8 January 2020. https://observatorioni.org/

[4] Ocaña, Daliana, “Pueblos indígenas de Nicaragua vulnerables y sin información ante la pandemia” [Indigenous Peoples of Nicaragua vulnerable and uninformed about pandemic].

Voice of America, 9 April 2021, accessed 11 January 2021. Available at https://www.voanoticias.com/centroamerica/nicaragua-pueblos-indigenas-vulnerables-ante-coronavirus

[5] Herrera, Joel. Shakira Simmons: “Mientras más negra sos, más probable que te discriminen” [The blacker you are, the more likely you are to be discriminated against]. La Lupa, 14 June 2020, accessed 8 January 2021. Available at https://lalupa.press/2020/06/14/racismo-en-nicaragua-mientras-mas-negra-sos-mas-probable-que-te-discriminen/

[6] Cruz M. Delwin. “Dos comunidades indígenas de Nicaragua se declaran en cuarentena. Estas son las medidas que tomaron” [Two Indigenous communities in Nicaragua declare themselves under lockdown. These are the measures they took]. La Prensa, 21 May 2021, accessed 11 January 2020. Available at https://www.laprensa.com.ni/2020/05/21/nacionales/2676475-dos-comunidades-indigenas-de-nicaragua-se-declaran-en-cuarentena-estas-son-las-medidas-que-tomaran

[7] “Indígenas ramas y krioles de Nicaragua se declaran en cuarentena por COVID-19” [Indigenous Rama and Kriol of Nicaragua declare lockdown due to COVID-19]. Infobae, 3 June 2020, accessed 11 January 2021. Available at https://www.infobae.com/america/agencias/2020/06/03/indigenas-ramas-y-krioles-de-nicaragua-se-declaran-en-cuarentena-por-covid-19/

[8] Noticias de Bluefields. ”Dolor y angustia en familia de Bluefields y Monkey Point” [Pain and anguish among families of Bluefields and Monkey Point]. Facebook, 6 July 2020, accessed 11 January 2021. Available at https://www.facebook.com/NotiBluefields/posts/dolor-y-angustia-en-familia-de-bluefields-y-monkey-pointpor-muerte-de-joven-con-/1693879194100356/

[9] Castillo V., Houston. “Nicaragua: comunidad indígena enfrenta la pandemia y abandono del gobierno” [Nicaragua: Indigenous community faces pandemic and government abandonment]. Voice of America, 1 September 2020. Accessed 11 January 2021. Available at https://www.voanoticias.com/centroamerica/indigenas-nicaragua-enfrentan-pandemia-y-abandono-gobierno

[10] Vásquez, Bladimir. La COVID-19 en el Caribe Norte: “Los indígenas estamos desamparados” [COVID-19 in the Northern Caribbean: “Indigenous people are abandoned”] Confidencial, 28 June 2020, accessed on 11 January 2021. Available at https://confidencial.com.ni/la-covid-19-en-el-caribe-norte-los-indigenas-estamos-desamparados/?fbclid=IwAR3SzUpIdXE9-ppw00VT6aGgZU5VfyiUGx7K1SNE0E7Iw3-IhyL7

[11] “Oficialismo politiza encuentro mayangna y sin prevención a la pandemia de COVID-19” [Mayangna government party meeting with no COVID-19 prevention measures]. Obrera de la Tecla, 21 September 2020, accessed on 11 January 2021. https://obreradelatecla.com/oficialismo-politiza-encuentro-mayangna-y-sin-prevencion-a-la-pandemia-de-covid-

[12] FAO. “Indigenous peoples' health and safety at risk due to Coronavirus (COVID-19)”. Accessed on 11 January 2021. Available at http://www.fao.org/indigenous-peoples/news-article/en/c/1268353//

[13] “Otro asesinato de indígena Mayagna en el caribe norte de Nicaragua, se contabilizan trece en lo que va del año” [Another Indigenous Mayagna murdered in the northern Caribbean of Nicaragua, 13 so far this year]. 100 noticias, 11 December 2020, accessed on 11 January 2021. https://100noticias.com.ni/sucesos/104212-indigena-asesinado-caribe-norte-nicaragua/

[14] Tórrez García, Cynthia. “CIDH condena ataque contra indígenas mayangnas en la comunidad Wasakin Caribe Norte” [IACHR condemns attack on Indigenous Mayangnas in the Wasakin Caribe Norte community]. La Prensa, 31 March 2020, accessed 11 January 2021. Available at https://www.laprensa.com.ni/2020/03/31/nacionales/2657590-cidh-condena-ataque-contra-indigenas-mayangnas-en-la-comunidad-wasakin-caribe-norte

 “Denuncian masacre de cinco líderes indígenas en Bosawás” [Massacre of five Indigenous leaders in Bosawás denounced]. Confidencial, 28 March 2020, accessed 11 January 2021. Available at https://confidencial.com.ni/denuncian-masacre-de-cinco-lideres-indigenas-en-bosawas/

 Munguia. Ivette. “Ataque de colonos deja un mayangna muerto y otro herido en San José de Bocay” [Attack by settlers leaves one Mayangna dead and another injured in San Jose de Bocay]. Confidencial, 12 July 2020, accessed 11 January 2021. Available at https://confidencial.com.ni/ataque-de-colonos-deja-un-mayangna-muerto-y-otro-herido-en-san-jose-de-bocay/

  “Indígena miskitu denuncia ataque de colonos este mañana en Sangni Laya” [Indigenous Miskitu denounces attack by settlers this morning in Sangni Laya]. República 18, 10 September 2020, accessed 11 January 2021. Available at https://republica18.com/indigena-miskitu-denuncia-ataque-de-colonos-este-manana-en-sangni-laya/

  CEJUDCAN, “El día 21 de septiembre de 2020, los colonos armados secuestraron dos comunitarios” [On 21 September 2020, armed settlers kidnapped two community members]. Facebook, 21 September 2020. Accessed on 11 January 2021. https://www.facebook.com/cejudhcan.derechoshumanos/posts/2873374459559484

Centro Jurídico y Sociocultural desde el Pensamiento Mayangna, “Press statement” Facebook, 12 October 2020. Accessed 11 January 2021. https://www.facebook.com/Centro-Jur%C3%ADdico-y-Sociocultural-desde-el-Pensamiento-Mayangna-105942574597409/photos/pcb.130397145485285/130397968818536/

  Galo, Abigail, “Organismo de derechos humanos solicitan a Ortega investigar asesinato de líder Mayangna” [Human rights body calls on Ortega to investigate murder of Mayangna leader]. Radio Corporación, 19 November 2020, accessed 11 January 2021. Available at https://radio-corporacion.com/blog/archivos/73322/organismo-de-derechos-humanos-solicitan-a-ortega-investigar-asesinato-de-lider-mayangna/ See also: https://twitter.com/cidh/status/1328821777729019909?s=24

[15] Rautner, Mario and Cuffer, Sandra. “¿Qué tiene que ver la carne que exporta Nicaragua al mundo con la deforestación?”. Mangobay, 3 October 2020. Available at https://es.mongabay.com/2020/10/que-tiene-que-ver-la-carne-que-exporta-nicaragua-al-mundo-con-la-deforestacion/

[16]National Commission for Demarcation and Titling, CONADETI. (2013). CONADETI and CIDT's Executive Report to 30 June 2013. Nicaragua. Available at https://www.poderjudicial.gob.ni/pjupload/costacaribe/pdf/informe_costacaribe3006.pdf; “Comandante-presidente Daniel entrega títulos comunitarios a pueblos originarios de la Costa Caribe de Nicaragua” [Comandante President Daniel delivers community titles to native peoples of the Caribbean Coast of Nicaragua]. 29 October 2016. Available at https://www.el19digital.com/articulos/ver/titulo:48337-comandante-presidente-daniel-entrega-titulos-comunitarios-a-pueblos-originarios-de-la-costa-caribe-de-nicaSalinas

[17] Carrere, Michelle. “Empresa de palma violó normativas ambientales” [Palm oil company violated environmental regulations]. Confidencial, 14 September 2017, Available at https://confidencial.com.ni/nacion/empresa-palma-violo-normativas-ambientales/

[18] Enríquez, Octavio, "Gobierno protege a Alba Forestal” [Government protects Alba Forestal]. Confidencial, 5 June 2013. Available at http://confidencial.com.ni/archivos/articulo/12124/quot-gobierno-protege-a-alba-forestal-quot

[19] Campos, Víctor. “Con el modelo extractivista crecemos, pero, ¿nos desarrollamos? Y con la minería ni crecemos ni nos desarrollamos” [With the extractivist model we grow, but do we develop? And with mining we neither grow nor develop]. Envío, July 2017. Available at https://www.envio.org.ni/articulo/5364

[20] Oakland Institute, “Nicaragua’s Failed Revolution: The Indigenous Struggle for Saneamiento”. April 2020, accessed 11 January 2021. Available at https://www.oaklandinstitute.org/nicaragua-failed-revolution-indigenous-struggle-saneamiento See also: Miranda A., Wilfredo. “Etnocidio en Nicaragua: La violenta embestida de los invasores que desplaza a los indígenas en la Costa Caribe” [Ethnocide in Nicaragua. The violent onslaught of invaders displacing Indigenous people on the Caribbean Coast]. Divergentes, 9 August 2020, accessed 11 January 2021. Available at https://www.divergentes.com/colonos-desplazan-indigenas-nicaragua See also: CEJIL. “Resistencia mískitu: una lucha por el territorio y la vida” [Miskitu Resistance: A Struggle for Territory and Life]. August 2019. Accessed 11 January 2021. Available at https://cejil.org/es/informe-resistencia-miskitu-una-lucha-territorio-y-vida and, APIAN. “Informe sobre la Situación de los Derechos Territoriales de los Pueblos Indígenas y Afrodescendientes de Nicaragua” [Report on the Territorial Rights of Indigenous and Afrodescendant Peoples in Nicaragua]. December 2017, accessed 11 January 2021. Available at http://www.temasnicas.net/informeapian.pdf

[21] “Alerta sobre crisis humanitaria en comunidades indígenas de Nicaragua” [Warning of humanitarian crisis in Indigenous communities in Nicaragua]. Despacho 505, 18 February 2020, accessed on 11 January 2021. https://www.despacho505.com/ataque-comunidades-indigenas-nicaragua/

[22] Chiffman, Geovanny, “Denuncian secuestro de niña a manos de colonos en una comunidad de Puerto Cabezas” [Kidnapping of girl by settlers in Puerto Cabezas denounced]. Artículo 66, 14 July 2020, accessed 11 January 2021. Available at https://www.articulo66.com/2020/07/14/denuncian-secuestro-nina-colonos-comunidad-puerto-cabezas/

[23] Torres G. Cinthya. “Porque son tan frecuentes las matanzas de indígenas en Nicaragua (como en Bosawás)?” [Why are the massacres of Indigenous people so frequent in Nicaragua (like in Bosawás)?] La Prensa, 2 February 2020, accessed 11 January 2021. Available at https://www.laprensa.com.ni/2020/02/02/nacionales/2635944-por-que-son-tan-frecuentes-las-masacres-de-indigenas-en-nicaragua-como-la-ocurrida-en-bosawas-en-la-justicia-esta-la-clave

[24] Selser, Gabriela. “Nicaragua. Mueren los indígenas y también el bosque” [Nicaragua. The Indigenous people die and so does the forest]. DW, 18 February 2020. Available at https://www.dw.com/es/nicaragua-mueren-los-ind%C3%ADgenas-y-tambi%C3%A9n-el-bosque/a-52411880

[25] EFE. “Policía de Nicaragua niega reciente ataque a indígenas que causó indignación” [Nicaraguan police deny recent attack on Indigenous people, which caused outrage]. La Vanguardia. 20 February 2020. Available at https://www.lavanguardia.com/vida/20200220/473673845106/policia-de-nicaragua-niega-reciente-ataque-a-indigenas-que-causo-indignacion.html

[26] Camhaji, Elias. “Una masacre en una aldea indígena de Nicaragua deja cuatro muertos” [Massacre in Nicaraguan Indigenous village leaves four dead]. El País, 31 January 2020. Available at https://elpais.com/internacional/2020/01/31/america/1580491598_557089.html

100% Noticias. “Gobierno territorial Mayagna denuncia atroz asesinato de indígenas” [Mayagna territorial government denounces atrocious murder of Indigenous people]. YouTube video. 30 February 2020. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HUIYI4eIfBw&feature=share&fbclid=IwAR18VQocIhX034GRNBKbCZwa_rHYImjXqznuYRtjuxjvDaZTQ7I5u-SiYZw

Acosta María L. “Nicaragua: la masacre de Alal es solo la punta del iceberg” [Nicaragua: the Alal massacre is only the tip of the iceberg]. Servindi, 11 February 2020, accessed 11 January 2021. Available at https://www.servindi.org/actualidad-noticias/10/02/2020/nicaragua-la-masacre-de-alal-es-solo-la-punta-del-iceberg

[28] Shiffman, Geovanny, “Policía orteguista patina por tercera vez y ahora dice que si hubo cuatro asesinados en el Caribe” [Ortega police blunder for the third time and now say there were four killed in the Caribbean ]. Artículo 66, 1 February 2020. Available at https://www.articulo66.com/2020/02/01/policia-orteguista-patina-por-tercera-vez-y-ahora-dice-que-si-hubo-cuatro-asesinados-en-el-caribe/

[29] CALPI. Denuncia Pública. Liberan a detenido por ataque a la Comunidad Indígena de Alal y Ejército podría estar involucrado en el ataque. [Public Complaint. Detainee released for attack on Alal Indigenous Community and Army could be involved in the attack]. 8 June 2020. Available at https://www.facebook.com/calpinicaragua/posts/4166665220018116/

[30] “Capturan a integrante de la banda ‘Chabelo’ autor de los delitos en perjuicio en la Comunidad Alal” [Member of ‘Chabelo’ band captured, author of crimes against Alal community]. El 19 digital, 12 February 2020. Available at https://www.el19digital.com/articulos/ver/titulo:99994-capturan-a-integrante-de-la-banda-chabelo-autor-de-los-delitos-en-perjuicio-en-la-comunidad-alal

  CALPI. Denuncia Pública. Liberan a detenido por ataque a la Comunidad Indígena de Alal y Ejéercito podría estar involucrado en el ataque [Public Complaint. Person detained for attack on Alal Indigenous Community released and Army could be involved in the attack]. Facebook, 8 June 2020. Available at: https://www.facebook.com/calpinicaragua/posts/4166665220018116/

[31] See above Note 21. See also: Cruz, Ana L. “Colonos desplazan a más de treinta familias indígenas de la comunidad Sangni Laya” [Settlers displace more than 30 Indigenous families from the Sangni Laya community]. Confidencial, 6 September 2020, accessed on 11 January 2021. Available at https://confidencial.com.ni/colonos-desplazan-a-mas-de-treinta-familias-indigenas-de-la-comunidad-sangni-laya/

[32] Nicaragua: Experta de la ONU condena el asesinato de un activista y pide proteger a los defensores medioambientales. [Nicaragua: UN expert condemns activist's murder and calls for protection of environmental defenders]. UN Noticias, 1 February 2021. Available at

https://news.un.org/es/story/2021/02/1487382#:~:text=La%20relatora*%20especial%20sobre%20la,a%20los%20responsables%20ante%20la

IACHR. (23 March 2020) IACHR Urges the State of Nicaragua to Cease Violations of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and Communities. Available at https://www.oas.org/en/iachr/media_center/PReleases/2020/061.asp

[33] Oakland Institute, “Nicaragua’s Failed Revolution: The Indigenous Struggle for Saneamiento”. April 2020. Available at https://www.oaklandinstitute.org/nicaragua-revolucion-fallida-lucha-indigena-saneamiento

See also: Miranda Aburto, Wilfredo. “Etnocidio en Nicaragua: La violenta embestida de los invasores que desplaza a los indígenas en la Costa Caribe”. Divergentes, 9 August 2020. Available at: https://www.divergentes.com/colonos-desplazan-indigenas-nicaragua/

See also: CEJIL. Resistencia mískitu: una lucha por el territorio y la vida. August 2019. Available at https://cejil.org/es/informe-resistencia-miskitu-una-lucha-territorio-y-vida

See also: Alianza de Pueblos Indígenas y Afrodescendientes de Nicaragua (APIAN). Informe sobre la Situación de los Derechos Territoriales de los Pueblos Indígenas y Afrodescendientes de Nicaragua. Nicaragua, December 2017. Available at http://www.temasnicas.net/informeapian.pdf

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