• Indigenous peoples in Nicaragua

    Indigenous peoples in Nicaragua

    There are seven indigenous peoples of Nicaragua. Nicaragua has adopted the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and ratified ILO Convention 169 in 2010.

The Indigenous World 2023: Nicaragua

Nicaragua has seven Indigenous Peoples: the Chorotega (221,000), Cacaopera or Matagalpa (97,500), the Ocanxiu or Sutiaba (49,000) and the Nahoa or Nahuatl (20,000) live in the Pacific, centre and north of the country while the Caribbean (or Atlantic) coast is inhabited by the Miskitu (150,000), the Sumu or Mayangna (27,000) and the Rama (2,000). Other peoples who also enjoy collective rights according to the Political Constitution of Nicaragua (1987) are the people of African descent, known as the Creole or Kriol (43,000) and Garífuna (2,500).

In 1979, the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) took power in Nicaragua and were later opposed by the U.S.-funded “Contra” armed front. Peasant farmers from the Pacific together with Indigenous Peoples from the Caribbean Coast participated in the Contras. In 1987, following a friendly settlement of the conflict through the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) aimed at putting an end to Indigenous resistance, the FSLN created the Autonomous Regions of the Northern Caribbean Coast (RACCN) and Southern Caribbean Coast (RACCS), based on a Statute of Autonomy (Law No. 28).

Following the Inter-American Court of Human Rights’ (IACtHR) judgement in the case of the Mayangna (Sumo) Community of Awas Tingni v. Nicaragua in 2001, Law No. 445 on the Communal Property Regime of the Indigenous Peoples and Ethnic Communities of the Autonomous Regions of the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua and of the Bocay, Coco, Indio and Maíz rivers, among others, was enacted. This law recognizes the communities’ right to self-government and creates a procedure for the titling of territories. In 2005, the State began the titling process for the 23 Indigenous and Afro-descendant territories in the RACCN and RACCS, culminating in the issuing of property titles.

In 2007, Nicaragua voted in favour of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and in 2010 ratified ILO Convention 169. However, starting that same year, the political party in government began to co-opt Indigenous and Afro-descendant authorities, culminating in the imposition of governments parallel to those legitimately elected by the communities and territories. In 2015, the Alliance of Indigenous and Afro-descendant Peoples of Nicaragua was formed.


Protected areas and the Green Climate Fund's controversial Bio-Clima Project

The Green Climate Fund (GCF) proposed financing FP146 for Nicaragua “Bio-Clima Project: Integrated Climate Action to Reduce Deforestation and Strengthen Resilience in Bosawás and Río San Juan Biosphere Reserves” through the Central American Bank for Economic Integration (CABEI) with implementation from mid-2022 on. However, the outcome of a Final Compliance Assessment Report on the GCF's operating policies and procedures has created uncertainty regarding the GCF’s implementation. In this article, we will analyse the background, complaints procedure and uncertain implementation of the Bio-Clima Project.

Nicaragua is located in the heart of the American continent and has a territory of approximately 370,000 km2; of this, 130,000 km2 constitute the country’s land surface and 200,000 km2 its marine territories in the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea. Nicaragua has declared 75 legally-protected areas covering an area of 7,462,410 hectares, equivalent to 57% of the national territory.

The most important protected areas were created by the State between 1990 and 2003 on Nicaragua’s Caribbean Coast, an area that comprises 54% of the national territory, 80% of the forests and most of the country's Indigenous populations. The Caribbean Coast is administratively divided into the Autonomous Region of the Northern Caribbean Coast (RACCN) and the Autonomous Region of the Southern Caribbean Coast (RACCS).

The most important protected areas in Nicaragua are the Bosawás Biosphere Reserve (1997),[1] the Southeast Nicaragua Reserve – including the Indio y Maíz Biological Reserve and the Cerro Silva and Punta Gorda Forest Reserves[2] – now known as the Río San Juan Biosphere Reserve (2003),[3] and the Isla de Ometepe Biosphere Reserve in the Nicaraguan Great Lake (2010).[4] These reserves were also declared as such by UNESCO and the Nicaraguan Caribbean Biosphere Reserve[5] (2021) was recently declared by the State.[6]

Most of Nicaragua's protected areas have been superimposed on territories traditionally and historically occupied by Indigenous and Afro-descendant peoples. Between 2005 and 2013, under a collective and inalienable property regime, the State titled a total of 23 territories comprising 304 communities and covering an area of 37,841 km2 or 31.16% of the national territory.[7] However, the last stage of the titling process, known as “saneamiento” or regularization – when the rights of third parties within the titled territories are established – has not been conducted by the State. Meanwhile, environmental degradation and settler encroachment continue on the Indigenous territories that are also legally-protected areas.[8]


The Green Climate Fund and the Bio-Clima Project

The GCF was established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 2010 as one of the main financial mechanisms by which to support developing countries in implementing their climate change policies.

The GCF[9] has agreed to finance the Bio-Clima Project: Integrated Climate Action to Reduce Deforestation and Strengthen Resilience in Bosawás and San Juan River Biosphere Reserves[10] in Nicaragua for a total of USD 116 million,[11] through the Central American Bank for Economic Integration (CABEI). The project aims to reduce emissions by addressing deforestation on Nicaragua’s Caribbean Coast, an important area for the conservation of biodiversity and the livelihoods and cultures of Indigenous and Afro-descendant peoples.


The socio-political context of Nicaragua

The Bio-Clima Project has nonetheless received a great deal of criticism for ignoring Nicaragua’s general socio-political context since 2018, and particularly the context in the areas of project implementation. In addition, CABEI has been accused of corruption[12],[13] and is considered the main financial backer of the Nicaraguan government, without even considering the human rights violations attributed to the State.[14] Criticism from Indigenous people[15] and environmentalists also points to a lack of State commitment in counteracting deforestation and protecting the traditional property and personal integrity and security of members of Indigenous and Afro-descendant peoples living in protected areas.[16]

The Nicaraguan government is currently concentrating its environmental and natural resource management decisions within the Presidency of the Republic[17] and has relaxed its natural resource regulations and controls:[18] the budget for managing protected areas, traditionally financed by international cooperation, has declined by more than 80%; access to public information has been limited;[19] and spaces for civil society participation generally have been closed and environmentalism in the country criminalized.[20]


The Río San Juan Biosphere Reserve

The Grand Interoceanic Canal megaproject that will cross Nicaragua is incompatible with the objectives of the Bio-Clima Project and was promoted without due consultation with the Indigenous and Afro-descendant peoples, despite the fact that 52% of its route will cross the territories of these peoples. In addition, the megaproject's constant announcements have resulted in massive encroachment onto the Indio Maíz Biological Reserve, part of the Río San Juan Biosphere Reserve.[21] The case is currently before the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. In addition, slaughterhouses and meat distributors are buying cattle from illegal cattle ranching within the protected area.[22]


Gold mining

Gold has become Nicaragua's most valuable export, surpassing beef in 2020, and this also comes from legally-protected areas. Mining is being conducted in the Río San Juan and BOSAWÁS Biosphere Reserves[23] despite this activity being incompatible with the environmental proposals of the Bio-Clima Project. The gold business has formed the object of U.S. sanctions against senior Nicaraguan government officials and the Nicaraguan Mining Company (EMINAS).[24],[25]


Attacks on Indigenous people in Bosawás

The Bosawás Biosphere Reserve is clearly suffering deforestation due to the advance of the agricultural frontier and extensive cattle ranching. In addition, since 2015, Indigenous Peoples have suffered systematic attacks and dispossession of their – State-titled – territories, causing entire communities to be forcibly displaced.[26] The 2022 Annual Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights in Nicaragua,[27] delivered to the 49th Session of the United Nations Human Rights Council, noted:

In 2021, indigenous peoples and people of African descent in Nicaragua continued to suffer discrimination and violence. Even though the right to autonomy over their land and territories is protected by law, violent attacks have continued to prevent the peaceful enjoyment of their rights. OHCHR received reports of at least six attacks and violent incidents that affected indigenous peoples in 2021, resulting in at least 11 indigenous men killed, 1 woman and 1 girl raped, and 7 persons injured, including 2 children.


These actions are contrary to the safeguards that should have been implemented to protect Indigenous Peoples in the implementation of the Bio-Clima Project.


Green Climate Fund approves Bio-Clima Project

Despite the context described above, the GCF Board of Directors approved the project in 2021, albeit with certain conditions.[28] CABEI and the Government of Nicaragua therefore signed the agreements on the Bio-Clima Project; however, the GCF Secretariat subsequently granted CABEI a deadline of 7 June 2022 to comply with the conditions in order to access the first disbursement of project funds. To date, no such conditionalities are known to have been met.


Carbon capture project cancelled

The difficulty in meeting the necessary conditions for the implementation of this type of project in Nicaragua became evident on 23 February 2021 when the carbon capture project, financed by the World Bank's Carbon Fund, was cancelled. Bilaterally agreed between the World Bank and the Nicaraguan government, the Fund Management Team (FMT) explained the cancellation:

(...) unfortunately we cannot move forward with the ERPA [Emission Reduction Payment Agreements] at this stage. ERPAs are complex projects that require the implementation of very robust systems from the outset, particularly to ensure full benefit sharing with Indigenous communities. They also require frequent on-site monitoring and evaluation, continuous supervision and third-party certification of results. [29]

The cancellation was decided due to the impossibility of having a solid environmental and social monitoring system and benefit-sharing plan – especially given the lack of Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) and the State’s imposition of governments parallel to those legitimately elected by the communities (these parallel governments are made up of people related to the political party in government in Nicaragua) – required as a vital part of all FCPF ERPAs in relation to monitoring, supervision and certification.

The World Bank acted prudently given the high reputational and financial risk of meeting the project's objective amdist the conditions of violence, forced displacement and devastation of the territory currently being suffered by the Indigenous Peoples of the Caribbean Coast of Nicaragua, where the project was to be implemented.


Complaint regarding the Bio-Clima Project

On 30 June 2021, the Independent Redress Mechanism (IRM)[30] received a complaint – confidentially for fear of reprisals from the Nicaraguan government – regarding the Bio-Clima Project. The complainants alleged that the project would harm Indigenous and Afro-descendant communities because (i) there had been no adequate consultation with the communities leading to Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC); (ii) the project would result in environmental degradation and further attacks by armed non-Indigenous settlers; (iii) CABEI's actions did not appear to comply with GCF policies on participation and information disclosure; (iv) the GCF Board conditions imposed on the project could not be effectively defined and enforced; and (v) the Government of Nicaragua would not comply with its obligations for the implementation of the Bio-Clima Project.[31]

The complaint was declared admissible on 21 July 2021 and the initial steps – attempts to resolve the problem, settlement/mediation – were concluded on 17 January 2022 with no result. In this context, the IRM embarked on its compliance assessment of the GCF's operational policies and procedures for the Bio-Clima Project, in particular its Interim Environmental and Social Safeguards, Environmental and Social Policy (ESP), Indigenous Peoples Policy (IPP) and Updated Gender Policy (UGP).


The IRM rules on the complaint

In response to complaint C-0006-Nicaragua, the IRM initiated an investigation process: the IRM’s Compliance and Dispute Resolution Specialist undertook a mission to Central America, met with interested parties and conducted consultations with CABEI, the Government of Nicaragua and FVC staff. Following this investigation process, an initial Compliance Assessment Report was issued and published on 24 April 2022. This report concluded that there was prima facie evidence of adverse impacts caused or likely to be caused by the project's non-compliance with GCF operating policies and procedures.[32] The IRM then began the compliance investigation to ascertain the details of the matter.


The IRM issues its Final Compliance Assessment Report

On 30 August 2022, the IRM submitted its Final Compliance Assessment Report to the GCF Board of Directors. The co-chairs and the GCF Board of Directors have a responsibility to rule on the report[33] and publish their decision within 10 days. The GCF Board of Directors held its 34th meeting during the second week of October 2022. However, during the meeting, the GCF Board of Directors met with CABEI and Nicaraguan government officials, excluding civil society members and GCF observers. They subsequently announced that a decision on the report would not be taken until the next GCF meeting to be held in March 2023.

The decision taken by the GCF’s Board of Directors must be in accordance with the regulations and guidelines of its own institution in order to truly fulfil its objectives.


United Nations rapporteurs request information

Due to the constant complaints from the Indigenous Peoples of Nicaragua’s Caribbean Coast through the special mechanisms of the United Nations, in September 2022 the Special Rapporteur on the rights of Indigenous Peoples, the Special Rapporteur on the issue of human rights obligations relating to the enjoyment of a safe, clean, healthy and sustainable environment; and the Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions jointly requested information from the State of Nicaragua on the situation of these peoples and their traditional territories in the protected areas where the Bio-Clima Project was to be implemented.[34]

Unfortunately, the State of Nicaragua has refused to cooperate with the United Nations, which makes the implementation of the Bio-Clima Project even more difficult since one of the conditionalities imposed by the GCF is the involvement of a United Nations body as independent third party monitoring its implementation. This lack of cooperation on the part of the State therefore makes it practically impossible for it to comply with this condition.



Dr. Maria Luisa Acosta was president of the Academy of Sciences of Nicaragua and coordinator of the Centre for Legal Assistance to Indigenous Peoples (CALPI). Contact: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; http://calpi-nicaragua.com


This article is part of the 37th edition of The Indigenous World, a yearly overview produced by IWGIA that serves to document and report on the developments Indigenous Peoples have experienced.  Find The Indigenous World 2023 in full here.



Notes and references

[1] The Bosawás Biosphere Reserve was recognized by the Man and the Biosphere Programme in October 1997, and was ratified by the Government of Nicaragua in 2001, by means of Law No. 407 (Law declaring and defining the Bosawás Biosphere Reserve). The reserve forms part of the heart of the Mesoamerican biological corridor and is, in turn, the second largest tropical rainforest in the Americas, after the Amazon. It is also considered a UNESCO World Heritage site. The text of Law No. 407 was retrieved from http://legislacion.asamblea.gob.ni/normaweb.nsf/d0c69e2c91d9955906256a400077164a/276abf1f6374c9f2062570ae0052d6aa?OpenDocument

[2] Executive Decree No. 42-91 establishes the areas around Cerro Silva, including Punta Gorda, as Protected Areas. Furthermore, the Decree for the Creation of Forest Reserves (Decree 38-92 of 26 June 1992) established the areas already declared as protected around Cerro Silva as Forest Reserves, within the following natural limits: Escondido River, Mahogany River, Cerro Silva, Cerro Cabecera de Kukra (405 metres), confluence of the Serrano and Chiquito rivers, confluence of the Mora and Punta Gorda rivers, to their mouth at the sea. The Regulations governing Nicaragua’s Protected Areas were subsequently issued, Decree No. 14-99, published in Official Gazette Nos. 42 and 43 of 2 and 3 March 1999. Available at http://legislacion.asamblea.gob.ni/Normaweb.nsf/9e314815a08d4a6206257265005d21f9/2225795adad762df06257217006632b7

Article 2 of Decree No. 66-99 on Updating and Specifying the Categories and Boundaries of Protected Areas in the Southeastern Territory of Nicaragua, published in Official Gazette No. 116 of 18 June 1999, updates and specifies the category of Natural Reserve for the Cerro Silva and Punta Gorda Reserves. Available at http://legislacion.asamblea.gob.ni/normaweb.nsf/9e314815a08d4a6206257265005d21f9/5f5a230633eb33290625723a00600179

[3] Biosphere Reserve is one of the categories defined and recognized within Nicaragua's National System of Protected Areas, and it includes the Southeastern Biosphere Reserve, declared protected by national legislation in 1999. The new name given since then has been the San Juan River Biosphere Reserve. On 17 April 1990, the Nicaraguan government established the creation of the Southeastern Natural Protected Area of Nicaragua by means of Presidential Decree 527. This decree created the Solentiname National Monument, the Guatuzos Wildlife Refuge, the Fortaleza de la Inmaculada Concepción de María Historic Monument, and the Great Indio-Maíz Biological Reserve. In 1994, by means of Decree 28-94, the Southeast Region of Nicaragua was created as a Sustainable Development Territory and, in 1999, by means of Decree 66-99, the Southeast Biosphere Reserve of Nicaragua was created and is still in effect. Available at https://reservaindiomaiz.org/historia/

[4] López-Sáez, José Antonio y Pérez Soto, Josué. “Permanencia y transmisión del acervo botánico etnomedicinal en la Isla de Ometepe (Nicaragua)”. Revista española de antropología americana/ Departamento de Antropología y Etnología de América, 40(2):125-144, February 2010. Available at

Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235921015_Permanencia_y_transmision_del_acervo_botanico_etnomedicinal_en_la_Isla_de_Ometepe_Nicaragua

[5] “El nuevo lío entre Colombia y Nicaragua: la reserva de biósfera que creó Daniel Ortega”. El Espectador, 16 February 2021. Available at https://www.elespectador.com/mundo/america/el-nuevo-lio-entre-colombia-y-nicaragua-la-reserva-de-biosfera-que-creo-daniel-ortega-article/

[6] National Map of Tourism Protected Areas. Available at https://www.mapanicaragua.com/areas-protegidas/

[7] Executive Report of CONADETI and the CIDTs as of 30 June 2013. Available at https://www.poderjudicial.gob.ni/pjupload/costacaribe/pdf/informe_costacaribe3006.pdf Y,

“Comandante-Presidente Daniel entrega títulos comunitarios a pueblos originarios de la Costa Caribe de Nicaragua”. El 19 digital, 29 October 2016. Retrieved from: https://www.el19digital.com/articulos/ver/titulo:48337-comandante-presidente-daniel-entrega-titulos-comunitarios-a-pueblos-originarios-de-la-costa-caribe-de-nicaSalinas

[8] [The Committee] is concerned about the stagnation of efforts to regularize indigenous territories and address the lack of effective mechanisms for the protection of indigenous peoples’ rights to their lands, territories and resources. The Committee is concerned about the serious social conflicts and violent disputes over the possession and use of lands and territories that arise between indigenous peoples and third parties that occupy or wish to exploit the natural resources in such territories, particularly in territories belonging to the indigenous and Afrodescendent peoples on the Caribbean coast (art. 1). Concluding observations on the fifth periodic report of Nicaragua. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (hereinafter CESCR Report 2021) E/C.12/NIC/CO/5, 11 November 2021, para. 11. Available at https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2fC.12%2fNIC%2fCO%2f5&Lang=en

[9] Green Climate. Projects & Programmes FP146 Bio-CLIMA: Integrated climate action to reduce deforestation and strengthen resilience in BOSAWÁS and Rio San Juan Biospheres. Green Climate. Available at www.greenclimate.fund/project/fp146#overview

[10] CABEI. BCIE aprueba a la República de Nicaragua US$ 84.0 millones para la ejecución del Proyecto Bio-Clima. CABEI, 15 December 2020. Available at https://www.bcie.org/novedades/noticias/articulo/bcie-aprueba-a-la-republica-de-nicaragua-us840-millones-para-la-ejecucion-del-proyecto-bio-clima

[11] “Nicaragua: $116 millones para el agro con una línea de crédito del BCIE el gobierno nicaragüense financiará proyectos enfocados en la transformación de la ganadería extensiva, agricultura y explotación de madera”. Central América Data, 13 November 2020. Available at https://www.centralamericadata.com/es/article/home/Nicaragua_116_millones_para_el_agro

[12] “Ottón Solís rompe confidencialidad del BCIE y lanza serias denuncias contra la entidad”. La Tribuna, 13 November 2021. Available at https://latribunacr.com/2021/11/13/otton-solis-rompe-confidencialidad-del-bcie-y-lanza-serias-denuncias-contra-la-entidad/

[13] Berg, Ryan C. (2023). “Why Is CABEI Funding Nicaragua’s Dictatorship and What Can the United States Do about It?” available at: https://www.csis.org/analysis/why-cabei-funding-nicaraguas-dictatorship-and-what-can-united-states-do-about-it

[14]'El BCIE no es una instancia de derechos humanos', responde Dante Mossi ante críticas por oxigenar al régimen de Ortega”. Dispatch 505, 9 May 2022. Available at https://www.despacho505.com/el-bcie-no-es-una-instancia-de-derechos-humanos-responde-dante-mossi-ante-criticas-por-oxigenar-al-regimen-de-ortega/

[15] 100 Noticias Nicaragua. “Consejo de Ancianos de Moskitia escribe al Banco Mundial por proyecto Bio Clima que presentó régimen”. YouTube, 23 June 2022. Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B736kBzGyPg

[16] “BCIE oxigena a Ortega con préstamo de más de 100 millones de dólares para 'deforestación'”. Artículo 66, 17 November 2021. Available at https://www.articulo66.com/2021/11/17/bcie-oxigena-ortega-prestamo-millonario-deforestacion

[17] “INAFOR pasa a la presidencia de la República”. 100 % Noticias, 25 April 2017. Available at https://100noticias.com.ni/actualidad/85069-inafor-pasa-a-la-presidencia-de-la-republica/

[18] Through Decree No. 15-2017, the government exempted many companies, private projects, and even individual investors from the requirement to conduct Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA), even when they are within protected areas. And, through Decree 20-2017 it repealed Decree 76-2006, establishing much more expeditious, flexible, discretionary and less participatory processes for obtaining permits, authorizations and licences. In addition, it has failed to establish the technical criteria, methodologies, requirements and administrative procedures for conducting this strategic environmental assessment. The “polluter pays” principle has furthermore been eliminated.

[19] Guillermo Medrano. “Acceso a la información pública: 13 años de cuarentena en Nicaragua”. Despacho 505, 13 June 2020. Available at https://www.despacho505.com/acceso-a-la-informacion-publica-13-anos-de-cuarentena-en-nicaragua/

[20] Judith Alonso. “Medio ambiente en ‘peligro de extinción’ en Nicaragua”. DW, 9 April 2022. Available at https://www.dw.com/es/medio-ambiente-en-peligro-de-extinci%C3%B3n-en-nicaragua/a-61416004

[21] Acosta. María L. El impacto de la Ley del Gran Canal Interoceánico de Nicaragua sobre los pueblos indígenas y afrodescendientes de Nicaragua. Available at https://www.calpi-nicaragua.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/El-Impacto-de-la-Ley-del-Gran-Canal-FINAL-11-10-141.pdf

[22] Carlos Morales. “La mafia ganadera de Indio Maíz”. Onda Local, 20 December 2019. Available at https://ondalocalni.com/especiales/811-mafia-ganadera-reserva-indio-maiz/

[23] Boletín de Monitoreo de la Fundación del Río. “Nicaragua y su oro perverso”. Fundación del Río, 14 July 2022. Available at https://reservaindiomaiz.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/07/Nicaraguaysuoroperverso.pdf

[24] Wilmer Benavides. “¿Por qué EE.UU. sancionó el negocio del oro en Nicaragua? Aquí las razones”. Artículo 66, 24 October 2022. Available at https://www.articulo66.com/2022/10/24/sanciones-estados-unidos-oro-nicaragua-daniel-ortega/

[25] U.S. Department of the Treasury. “Treasury Sanctions Nicaraguan State Mining Company”, 17 June 2022. Available at: https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/jy0822

[26] María Luisa Acosta. “Graves Violaciones a los Derechos Humanos de los Pueblos Indígenas en el caribe nicaragüense”. Diálogo Derechos Humanos, 6 April 2021. Available at https://dialogoderechoshumanos.com/agenda-estado-de-derecho/graves-violaciones-a-los-derechos-humanos-de-los-pueblos-indigenas-en-el-caribe-nicaragueense

[27] OHCHR. “Situation of human rights in Nicaragua”. OHCHR, 24 February 2022. Available at https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/A_HRC_49_23_AdvanceEditedVersion.pdf

[28] Ortega Ramírez, Pedro. “Aprueban crédito del BCIE para programa Bio-Clima en Bosawas y Río San Juan”. El 19 digital, 17 November 2021. Available at https://www.el19digital.com/articulos/ver/titulo:122870-aprueban-credito-del-bcie-para-programa-bioclima-en-bosawas-y-rio-san-juan

[29] Communication sent via email on 23 February 2021 to Carbon Fund participants and observers by the Fund Management Team (FMT). See also: “BM cancela pago millonario a Nicaragua por desacuerdos en tema de indígenas”. Swiss Info, 24 February 2021. Available at https://www.swissinfo.ch/spa/nicaragua-ind%C3%ADgenas_bm-cancela-pago-millonario-a-nicaragua-por-desacuerdos-en-tema-de-ind%C3%ADgenas/46397848

[30] 1- The Independent Redress Mechanism (IRM) is an accountability and redress mechanism established by the Green Climate Fund (GCF) to enhance the effectiveness of GCF operations and respond to the concerns of people adversely affected by GCF-funded projects or programmes. 2- Among others, the IRM is mandated to receive and consider complaints from persons who believe they have been, or may be, adversely affected by GCF projects or programmes that do not comply with GCF policies and procedures (including social and environmental safeguards). 3- The IRM is independent of the GCF Secretariat and reports directly to the GCF Board of Directors, which oversees the Fund’s investments and management. To learn more about the IRM see https://es.irm.greenclimate.fund/ And, on the procedures of the Independent Redress Mechanism (IRM) see https://irm.greenclimate.fund/sites/default/files/document/procedures-and-guidelines-irm-final-july-2021_0.pdf

[31] FVC/MIR. Reporte de evaluación del cumplimiento. Caso C-0006- 24 de abril de 2021. Available at https://es.irm.greenclimate.fund/sites/default/files/case/compliance-appraisal-report-publication-c0006-spanish-final-version.pdf

[32] FVC/MIR. Reporte de evaluación del cumplimiento. Caso C-0006- 24 de abril de 2021. Available at https://es.irm.greenclimate.fund/sites/default/files/case/compliance-appraisal-report-publication-c0006-spanish-final-version.pdf

[33] Case Register. C0006 Nicaragua FP146: Bio-CLIMA: Integrated Climate Action to Reduce Deforestation and Strengthen Resilience in Bosawás and San Juan River Biosphere Reserves. Available at https://irm.greenclimate.fund/case/c0006

[34] “Mandatos del Relator Especial sobre los derechos de los pueblos indígenas; del Relator Especial sobre la cuestión de las obligaciones de derechos humanos relacionadas con el disfrute de un medio ambiente sin riesgos, limpio, saludable y sostenible y del Relator Especial sobre ejecuciones extrajudiciales, sumarias o arbitrarias” (Ref.: AL NIC 4/2022). Geneva, Switzerland, 7 September 2022. Available at https://spcommreports.ohchr.org/TMResultsBase/DownLoadPublicCommunicationFile?gId=27541

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