Indonesia has a population of approximately 260 million. According to the Central Bureau of Statistics, the government recognizes 1,331 ethnic groups. The Ministry of Social Affairs identifies some Indigenous communities as komunitas adat terkecil (KAT), or geographically-isolated Indigenous communities. However, many more peoples self-identify as or are considered by others to be Indigenous. Recent government acts and decrees use the term: Masyarakat Adat to refer to Indigenous Peoples. The national Indigenous Peoples’ organization, Aliansi Masyarakat Adat Nusantara (AMAN), estimates that the total population of Indigenous Peoples in Indonesia is between 50 and 70 million.
The third amendment to the Indonesian Constitution recognizes Indigenous Peoples’ rights in articles 18 B-2 and 28 I-3. In more recent legislation, there is implicit recognition of some rights of Indigenous Peoples, where they are referred to as: Masyarakat Adat or Masyarakat Hukum Adat, including Act No. 5/1960 on Basic Agrarian Regulation, Act No. 39/1999 on Human Rights, and MPR Decree No. X/2001 on Agrarian Reform. Act No. 27/2007 on the Management of Coastal and Small Islands and Act No. 32/2010 on the Environment clearly use the term: Masyarakat Adat and use the working definition of AMAN. The Constitutional Court affirmed the constitutional rights of Indigenous Peoples to their land and territories in May 2013, including their collective rights to customary forests.