• Indigenous peoples in Indonesia

    Indigenous peoples in Indonesia

    Indonesia is home to an estimated number of 50-70 million indigenous peoples. Indonesia has adopted the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Still, the government does not fully accept the concept of indigenous peoples.
    Indigenous peoples in Indonesia are increasingly experiencing criminalisation and violence, often related to investments in indigenous territories.

The Indigenous World 2021: Indonesia

Indonesia has a population of approximately 260 million. According to the Central Bureau of Statistics, the government recognizes 1,331 ethnic groups.[1] The Ministry of Social Affairs identifies some Indigenous communities as komunitas adat terkecil (KAT), or geographically-isolated Indigenous communities. However, many more peoples self-identify as or are considered by others to be Indigenous. Recent government acts and decrees use the term: Masyarakat Adat to refer to Indigenous Peoples. The national Indigenous Peoples’ organization, Aliansi Masyarakat Adat Nusantara (AMAN), estimates that the total population of Indigenous Peoples in Indonesia is between 50 and 70 million.

The third amendment to the Indonesian Constitution recognizes Indigenous Peoples’ rights in articles 18 B-2 and 28 I-3. In more recent legislation, there is implicit recognition of some rights of Indigenous Peoples, where they are referred to as: Masyarakat Adat or Masyarakat Hukum Adat, including Act No. 5/1960 on Basic Agrarian Regulation, Act No. 39/1999 on Human Rights, and MPR Decree No. X/2001 on Agrarian Reform. Act No. 27/2007 on the Management of Coastal and Small Islands and Act No. 32/2010 on the Environment clearly use the term: Masyarakat Adat and use the working definition of AMAN. The Constitutional Court affirmed the constitutional rights of Indigenous Peoples to their land and territories in May 2013, including their collective rights to customary forests.

While Indonesia is a signatory to the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP), government officials argue that the concept of Indigenous Peoples is not applicable as almost all Indonesians (with the exception of the ethnic Chinese) are Indigenous and thus entitled to the same rights. The government has consequently rejected calls for specific needs from groups self-identifying as Indigenous.

West Papua covers the western part of the island of New Guinea and comprises the two Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua (Papua Barat). It has a population of 4.378 million people split across two provinces, with 3.5 million in Papua province and 878,000 in West Papua province. More than 50% of the population in both provinces are migrants who came from other parts of Indonesia through the government-sponsored transmigration program between the 1970s and early 2000s.

West Papua has the most diverse cultures and languages in Indonesia. While Bahasa Indonesia is the official language spoken now, there are more than 250 tribal languages spoken by Indigenous Papuans today. West Papua is divided into seven distinct customary territories: Mamberamo Tabi (Mamta), Saireri, Domberai and Bomberai, Mee Pago, La Pago and Ha Anim.

Since Indonesia took control over the region from the Netherlands in 1969, West Papuans have continued to seek independence from Indonesia. In 2001, the Indonesian government issued a Special Autonomy Law for Papua formerly called Irian Jaya, after which the government forcibly divided the Indonesia-controlled part of the island into Papua and West Papua provinces.

Land conflicts and criminalization

In 2020, the entire world was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in which the rate of human activity has slowed down. However, some companies in Indonesia did not stop their operations and, what is worse, were busy criminalizing Indigenous Peoples who stood in the way to them expanding their businesses.

Disheartening news arrived from Lamandau District in Central Kalimantan Province on 26 August. The chief of the Laman Kinipan Indigenous community, Effendi Buhing, was arrested by Central Kalimantan Provincial Police over a dispute with PT Sawit Mandiri Lestari (SML), a palm oil company.[2] The customary leader was prosecuted for leading the community struggle to defend his community’s forest.

The scene of the chief’s arrest went viral in Indonesian social media. Fully armed police and a number of vehicles took the Kinipan community by surprise. They came to arrest Buhing in full force, as if they were going after a terrorist, even though Buhing was sitting relaxing in the porch of his stilt house.[3] His wife, who filmed the incident, was in tears watching her husband dragged from his house in his ancestral village. After public pressure, Buhing was released and allowed to return home, although a sense of unease remains.

Several months prior to his arrest, five other Laman Kinipan Indigenous people were arrested and put in jail.[4]

The Besipae-Pubabu Indigenous Peoples on Timor Island in East Nusa Tenggara province are being criminalized by the local authorities for defending their customary forest from being cleared to create space for a corn plantation and cattle raising.[5] They are defending their forest because clearing it would affect the availability of water in the wells surrounding the forest and reduce the flora and fauna on which the Indigenous community rely.

On a number of occasions in 2020, state security agents violently attacked community forest defenders. As a result of clashes that took place in August, 37 families were violently evicted from the area and had their houses demolished. In October, clashes resulted in injuries to at least five community members, including children.[6]

The conflict between the Besipae-Pubabu community and the provincial authorities started in 2013 when the authorities granted a right-to-use certificate for a 3,780 hectare-area of the forest without the consent of the community.[7] Ironically, the August events took place just one day after the celebration of Indonesia´s Independence Day, where the country’s president Joko Widodo proudly wore traditional clothes from one of the Timorese Indigenous communities.[8]

In a similar case, the Rakyat Penunggu Indigenous Peoples of Durian Selemak and Pertumbukan village in North Sumatra Province clashed with state security agents and private security officers hired by PT Perkebunan Nusantara II (PTPN II), a state-owned agribusiness company on 29 September 2020 when the latter arrived to clear the community’s 966-hectare ancestral domain in order to convert it into a sugarcane plantation.[9] The company justified the forced occupancy claiming that the Rakyat Penunggu’s land was in fact owned by the state.

Ten women from the community blocked heavy machinery from entering the village. PTPN II Security used violence to move community activists from the road. One elderly woman was punched in the stomach and was in such pain that she almost fainted.[10]

The three cases illustrate how, despite the pandemic, the private sector and the authorities in Indonesia are continuing to harass and criminalize Indigenous Peoples in order to appropriate their lands.


The Job Creation Law, a part of the Omnibus Law package,[11] was passed on 5 October 2020 despite strong opposition from Indonesia’s civil society.

The Alliance of Indigenous Peoples of the Archipelago (AMAN), the nationwide Indigenous organization, has strongly opposed the Omnibus Law since its early formulation. In March, the organization issued a position paper on the Job Creation Bill – nicknamed “Cilaka” or the Disaster Bill – detailing Indigenous Peoples’ fundamental problems with the bill. These range from procedural issues, whereby Indigenous Peoples’ were excluded from participating in the drafting process, to its very essence, as the bill was created on the pretence that only special investments in the natural resources sector could create jobs.[12] Indonesia’s Indigenous Peoples are fearful that the Omnibus Law will trigger more extensive and massive violence and criminalization against Indigenous Peoples.

AMAN National Work Meeting

One important agenda in 2020 for Indonesia’s Indigenous Peoples was the biannual National Work Meeting organized by the Alliance of Indigenous Peoples of the Archipelago (AMAN). As in the past, the National Work Meeting was going to take place in March, alongside the commemoration of the Awakening Day of Indigenous Peoples of the Archipelago on 17 March and coinciding with the adoption of AMAN’s declaration on 17 March 1999. The Meeting was planned to take place in Ende, East Nusa Tenggara, but was postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

The National Work Meeting finally took place on 17-19 November 2020 and, for the first time in its history, was held virtually. Despite the obvious challenges of the digital divide across the country, the overall evaluation of the meeting was positive and, according to AMAN’s Secretary General Rukka Sombolinggi, has demonstrated Indigenous Peoples’ resilience in the face of challenges.

Reflections on the pandemic

While the Government of Indonesia lacked seriousness in preventing the spread of the coronavirus, AMAN’s Secretary General Rukka Sombolinggi showed strong leadership in the face of the public health disaster.

An emergency response task force called “Gugus Tugas AMANkan COVID-19” was formed.[13] This task force included an extensive network of COVID-19 response teams operating in areas populated by Indigenous Peoples throughout the archipelago. As of today, there are 108 teams in operation.

The majority of the response team members are Indigenous youth and women. Their work focuses mostly on ensuring their villages are not exposed to the virus. In doing so, they have sometimes introduced innovative solutions. For example, members of the Indigenous Youth Front of the Archipelago (BPAN) in North Sulawesi, the Osing in East Java, and Sembalun, West Nusa Tenggara made hand sanitizer from natural ingredients. They also recorded the process in video tutorials[14] so that Indigenous youth in other areas could learn. In addition, both Indigenous youth and women are engaging in farming and thus contributing to making their communities more resilient amidst the pandemic.

Soon after the start of the pandemic, AMAN issued a recommendation to all Indigenous communities to introduce a lockdown, following a concept of dignified lockdown.[15] This concept allows Indigenous Peoples to continue to carry out their activities as usual as long as they do not leave their communities. Indigenous Peoples can continue to tend their rice fields and gardens, harvest forest products and carry out other activities. Dignified lockdown ensures the resilience of Indigenous Peoples and is a manifestation of Indigenous Peoples’ sovereignty in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Indigenous Peoples and local communities, for example AMAN and the Consortium for Agrarian Reform (KPA), together supplied 10 tons of rice as well as fish and vegetables to the residents of Jakarta.[16] The beneficiaries were population groups that were among those hardest hit by the pandemic, including daily wage laborers, informal sector workers and journeymen. This acts not only demonstrates that, armed with their traditional knowledge, Indonesia’s Indigenous Peoples, are resilient in the face of such large-scale disasters as the COVID19 pandemic but that they are also able to generously extend their support to their fellow citizens in cities.

Indigenous women

In November, PEREMPUAN AMAN presented a report on Gender-Based Violence in Natural Resource Management in Indonesia. The report was produced on the basis of data collected in 21 Indigenous communities and details the situation of Indigenous women in Indonesia, including their occupations, participation in customary decision-making, and access to natural resources. The reports emphasizes that while the role of women in sustainable resource management is very high, their participation in customary decision-making remains low. As a result, they remain vulnerable to discriminatory practices and violence. Researchers behind the report hope that it could be used to encourage changes in development policy in Indonesia so that it takes into account the interests and needs of Indigenous Peoples in general and Indigenous women in particular. [17]



COVID-19 in Papua

On 26 March 2020, Papua Provincial authorities officially closed access to the province to passenger traffic by air and sea in order to prevent the spread of the coronavirus in Papua province.[18] Land border crossings to Papua New Guinea were also closed to passenger traffic. In addition to access to the province, certain restrictions on social gatherings were also introduced. The restrictions were initially introduced for a period of two weeks but were extended thereafter. While passenger traffic has been suspended, the transportation of goods has continued. Access to Papua province was finally reopened on 8 June although certain COVID-19 restrictions remained in place until the end of the year.

West Papua province also closed access to its territory although restrictions on movement here were somewhat less strict.

While the number of cases of COVID-19 recorded among Indigenous Peoples in Papua and West Papua provinces in 2020 was not very high, the death rate among those cases was among the highest in Indonesia.[19] The situation was exacerbated by insufficient healthcare infrastructure in the two provinces, where Indigenous Peoples often live far from the health facilities. Due to limited availability of hospital beds, some COVID-19 patients were hospitalized in hotels, where treatment was inadequate.

The economic impact of COVID-19 was especially strong in urban areas. Due to the slow response from the government, some community businesses had to shut down.[20]

The already precarious situation of the Indigenous Peoples displaced from Nduga regency to other regencies of Papua province following Indonesian Army’s counterinsurgency operation in 2018-2019[21] was exacerbated by the pandemic-related restrictions.[22] In addition to health problems, a shortage of food and lack of access to education for displaced children has also been an issue of concern.

Moreover, restrictions on movement introduced in March prevented people from engaging in their daily duties, even work so that they can meet their daily needs, thus further worsening their economic situation. Internally Displaced People (IDPs) are also suffering hostility from the local residents and are sometimes unable to go to fetch water and firewood.[23]

Internet blackout decision and online disinformation

On 3 June, a panel of judges at the Jakarta State Administrative Court ruled in the case on the termination of Internet access in Papua and West Papua that occurred during the anti-racist demonstrations in 2019. The court ruled that the action of the Ministry of Communication and Information and the President of the Republic of Indonesia to slow down and cut Internet access in the provinces of Papua and West Papua in August and September 2019 was an unlawful act.[24] The Internet blackout that occurred in 2019 prevented access to information on the protests from reaching the rest of the country.

Meanwhile a joint open-source investigation by the BBC and the Australian Strategic Policy Institute published in 2020 uncovered a well-funded and coordinated disinformation campaign on the Internet seemingly targeting the Free Papua movement.[25] The campaign, which involved hundreds of social media accounts on Twitter and Facebook, as well as dozens of websites with content in Indonesian, English, German and Dutch, is spreading confusing and outright false information. It seems that the purpose of the disinformation campaign is to influence international opinion about the situation in Papua and activists involved in the struggle for self-determination.

In a situation where the region is cordoned off for international journalists, while local independent media is restricted, such a disinformation campaign has huge potential to influence the international community’s perception of the situation in Papua.[26]

Trial of seven prisoners in Kalimantan

On 17 June, a Panel of Judges at the Balikpapan District Court, East Kalimantan found seven Papuan political prisoners guilty of treason for their participation in anti-racism demonstrations in Jayapura in 2019.[27] The trial was held outside Papua to prevent expressions of popular support for the defendants.

Among the seven activists were Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Body of the United Liberation Movement for West Papua (ULMWP) Buchtar Tabuni, chairman of the National Committee for West Papua (KNPB) Agus Kossay, and President of the Student Association at Jayapura University of Science and Technology (USTJ) Alexander Gobay. The prosecution were asking for harsh sentences of up to 15 years in prison but, in the end, the court handed down sentences ranging from between 10 and 11 months.[28] Sentenced activists are also required to pay a court fee of IDR 5,000.

Violence against civilians in Intan Jaya

On 19 September, pastor and Indigenous community leader Yeremia Zanambani was shot and killed by the Indonesian National Army (TNI) during a counterinsurgency operation in the vicinity of Hitadipa, Intan Jaya, Papua. The accident caused a public outcry and requests to the President of Indonesia, Joko Widodo, to investigate the killing.[29]

An independent investigation[30] conducted by the Papua Province Humanitarian Team revealed that the murder of Pastor Zanambani was related to the disappearance earlier the same year of two civilians following raids carried out by TNI in Hitadipa.

On 21 April 2020, a group of TNI soldiers in Sugapa, Intan Jaya regency carried out a raid on the community under the pretext of ensuring compliance with the COVID-19 health protocols. Intan Jaya Covid Task Force later stated that the operation was not part of the handling of the COVID-19 pandemic in Intan Jaya.

During the raid, the TNI arrested three civilians. One was soon released; however, the other two, brothers Apinus Zanambani (22) and Luther Zanambani (23), were taken to Sugapa Sub-District Military Command Headquarters and have not been seen since. When, after some time without news from the Apinus and Luther, their family started to press the military for answers, TNI denied knowing the whereabouts of the young men. The families of the missing men requested Pastor Jeremiah Zanambani, who was from the same clan as them, to intervene.

In December 2020, TNI announced that it was investigating nine members of the military for their suspected involvement in the disappearance of the two men.

Pastor Zanambani is the 14th victim in a series of violent events in Hitadipa since 2019 when, in response to the West Papua National Liberation Army’s (TPNPB) killing of three civilians, TNI established its field base in Hitadipa. Another eight civilians have been injured since.

The widespread violence to which civilians have been subjected shows that the Indonesian Army was not fully in control of the excesses of its members during the counterinsurgency operations in Intan Jaya. Furthermore, the prosecution of the military personnel involved in violence has been slow and insufficient.

Violence in Hitadipa resulted in mass displacements of civilians to other districts of Intan Jaya regency. Hitadipa residents are calling for TNI’s departure from the area so that they can return home.[31]

Cancellation of the Papuan People's Assembly Hearing Meeting

In November, Indonesian authorities disrupted a series of hearings about Papuans’ satisfaction with the region’s special status granted by the Indonesian government some 20 years ago. The hearings were organized by the Papuan People’s Assembly (MRP), a special government body introduced by the law on the Special Autonomy Status.

In Merauke, in the southern part of Papua, the MRP team in charge of the hearings was arrested by police and escorted handcuffed to a police station where they were accused of being involved in organizing pro-independence debates and interrogated. After interrogation, all those arrested were released.

In Wamena, participants in the hearings were confronted at the airport by pro-government militia Barisan Merah Putih.[32]

Those who did manage to make it to the venue in Papua’s capital, Jayapura, were turned away by police citing COVID-19 restrictions, although the number of people present was lower than the maximum allowed by the authorities.[33]

Prospects for 2021

In the upcoming year, the Indonesian government and Parliament are hopefully going to pass the Indigenous Peoples Bill. It is hoped that passing this bill into law will counterbalance the Job Creation Law in that it will offer certain guarantees of protection for the rights of Indigenous Peoples.



Jakob Siringoringo belongs to the Batak Toba Indigenous Peoples and was born in Holbung village, Sitiotio sub-district, Samosir District, North Sumatra-Indonesia. In 2014 he joined AMAN Tano Batak (regional chapter) and, two years, later BPAN (the Indigenous Youth Front of the Archipelago-wing of AMAN). In October 2018, he joined AMAN’s national chapter and, at the end of 2019, was appointed Chair of the BPAN National Board. Jakob can be contacted via email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Victor Mambor is a senior journalist from Papua and founder of the leading Papua online media,jubi.co.id. As a journalist his work covers more than 20 countries, mainly in the Pacific region. His articles on Papua can be found in the Jakarta Post, Benarnews.org, The Internationalist, The Guardian, Radio New Zealand, ABC and Al-Jazeera. Together with several journalists in the Melanesian region, he formed the Melanesian Media Freedom Forum in 2019. As a journalist, his work has won the 2020 best investigative report award from the Indonesian Press Publishers Union for its report on the riots in Wamena, Papua. He was also awarded the Press Freedom Fighter from the International Journalists Federation in 2015 with Gao Yu (a Chinese journalist), Andrea Nicodemo Idris (an Eritrean journalist).

This article is part of the 35th edition of The Indigenous World, a yearly overview produced by IWGIA that serves to document and report on the developments Indigenous Peoples have experienced.  Find The Indigenous World 2021 in full here


Notes and references

[1] Badan Pusat Statistik. “Informasi Terbaru.” 2021. https://bps.go.id/

[2] Arbi, Ivany Atina. “Police arrest customary leader in Central Kalimantan over land dispute.” The Jakarta Post, 27 August 2020.


[3] Najwa, Mata. “Effendi Buhing: Hati Saya Sakit, Seperti Dianggap Teroris.” Narasi, 2021. https://www.narasi.tv/mata-najwa/effendi-buhing-hati-saya-sakit-seperti-dianggap-teroris

[4] Barahamin, Andre. “KNPA: Hentikan Perampasan Wilayah Adat dan Kriminalisasi Masyarakat Adat Laman Kinipan!.” Aliansi Masyarakat Adat Nusantara, 27 August 2020. https://www.aman.or.id/2020/08/46507/


DENGAN PEMERINTAH PROVINSI NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR.” 13 May 2020. http://www.solidaritasperempuan.org/sub/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/Kronologi-Konflik-Masyarakat-Pubabu-dengan-Pemerintah-NTT.pdf

[6] Ghaliya, Ghina. Authorities clash with NTT indigenous community over disputed land.” The Jakarta Post, 15 October 2020. https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2020/10/15/authorities-clash-with-ntt-indigenous-community-over-disputed-land.html

[7] Ibid.

[8] Litha, Yoanes. “Aliansi Masyarakat Adat Nusantara Kecam Tindakan Represif terhadap Masyarakat Adat Besipae.” VOA Indonesia, 20 August 2020. https://www.voaindonesia.com/a/aliansi-masyarakat-adat-nusantara-kecam-tindakan-represif-terhadap-masyarakat-adat-besipae/5551290.html

[9] Gunawan, Apriadi. “Indigenous peoples injured in clash with state-owned plantation company in N. Sumatra.” The Jakarta Post, 30 September 2020. https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2020/09/30/indigenous-peoples-injured-in-clash-with-state-owned-plantation-company-in-n-sumatra.html

[10] Perempuan. “Sikap PEREMPUAN AMAN atas Rencana Penggusuran Paksa PTPN II di Kampung Durian Selemak, Kabupaten Langkat Sumatera Utara.” Perempuan Aman, 28 September 2020. https://perempuan.aman.or.id/sikap-perempuan-aman-atas-rencana-penggusuran-paksa-ptpn-ii-di-kampung-durian-selemak-kabupaten-langkat-sumatera-utara/

[11] For details on the law see Mambor, Victor, and Jakob Siringoringo. “Indonesia.” The Indigenous World 2020, edited by Dwayne Mamo, 250-266. IWGIA, 2020. https://iwgia.org/images/yearbook/2020/IWGIA_The_Indigenous_World_2020.pdf

[12] Barahamin, Andre. “OMNIBUS CILAKA YANG MEMBAWA PETAKA BAGI MASYARAKAT ADAT.” Aliansi Masyarakat Adat Nusantara, 3 March 2020. https://www.aman.or.id/2020/03/omnibus-cilaka-yang-membawa-petaka-bagi-masyarakat-adat/

[13] Aliansi Masyarakat Adat Nusantara. “Tanggap Bencana Covid 19.” 2021. https://www.aman.or.id/tanggap-bencana-covid-19/

[14] BPAN Official. 2020. “Pembuatan Antiseptik - Hand Sanitizer oleh BPAN Daerah Sembalun Menggunakan Bahan-bahan Alami.” Uploaded on 17 April 2020. YouTube video, 6:04 min. https://youtube/vSvY9WKlxJ8>; BPAN Official. 2020. “Hand Sanitizer ala Pemuda Adat Osing.” Uploaded on 12 May 2020. YouTube video, 2:19 min. https://youtu.be/zAMFvsYEYmo; BPAN Official. 2020. “Membuat Handsanitiser dengan Captikus (Alkohol tradisional Minahasa) oleh BPAN PD MINAHASA SELATAN.” Uploaded on 16 June 2020. YouTube video, 3:45 min. https://youtube/amMOLQ56w_4>

[15] Siringoringo, Jakob. “Instruksi Sekjen AMAN Merespon Perkembangan Penyebaran COVID-19.” Aliansi Masyarakat Adat Nusantara, 19 March 2020. https://www.aman.or.id/2020/03/instruksi-sekjen-aman-merespon-perkembangan-penyebaran-covid-19/

[16] Konsorsium Pembaruan Agraria (KPA). “GeSLA Atasi Covid-19: Donasi Pangan Petani Pasundan, Gerakan Solidaritas dari Lumbung Agraria.” 11 April 2020. http://kpa.or.id/media/baca/Liputan%20Khusus/514/

[17] Perempuan. “Workshop Konsultasi Hasil Riset Pemantauan Kekerasan Berbasis Gender PEREMPUAN AMAN.” Perempuan Aman, 27 November 2020. https://perempuan.aman.or.id/workshop-konsultasi-hasil-riset-pemantauan-kekerasan-berbasis-gender-perempuan-aman/

[18] Pemerintah Provinsi Papua. “Provinsi Papua Resmi Tutup Bandara Dan Pelabuhan Cegah Penyebaran Covid-19.” 2020. https://www.papua.go.id/view-detail-berita-7181/provinsi-papua-resmi-tutup-bandara-dan-pelabuhan-cegah-penyebaran-covid-19.html

[19] CNN Indonesia. “Kasus Covid-19 Pecah Rekor 8.369, Tertinggi di Papua.” 3 December 2020. https://www.cnnindonesia.com/nasional/20201203163550-20-577655/kasus-covid-19-pecah-rekor-8369-tertinggi-di-papua

[20] Ramah. “Dampak pandemi Covid-19, sebanyak 1.832 pekerja di Kota Jayapura dirumahkan.” Jubi, 6 October 2020. https://jubi.co.id/papua-1-832-pekerja-di-kota-jayapura-dirumahkan/

[21] See Kulesza, Patrick. “West Papua.” The Indigenous World 2019, edited by Dwayne Mamo, 328-335. IWGIA, 2019. https://www.iwgia.org/images/documents/indigenous-world/IndigenousWorld2019_UK.pdf ; Mambor, Victor, and Jakob Siringoringo. “Indonesia.” The Indigenous World 2020, edited by Dwayne Mamo, 250-266. IWGIA, 2020. https://iwgia.org/images/yearbook/2020/IWGIA_The_Indigenous_World_2020.pdf

[22] Pademme, Arjuna. “Derita pengungsi Nduga tak ada habisnya, Raga: Ambil air dan kayu bakar saja dilarang.” Jubi, 3 December 2020. https://jubi.co.id/derita-pengungsi-nduga-tak-ada-habisnya-raga-ambil-air-dan-kayu-bakar-saja-dilarang/

[23] Ibid.

[24] Kompas. “Kasus Blokir Internet di Papua, Jokowi Divonis Bersalah hingga Batal Ajukan Banding.” 21 June 2020. https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2020/06/21/08493401/kasus-blokir-internet-di-papua-jokowi-divonis-bersalah-hingga-batal-ajukan?page=all

[25] Strick, Benjamin, and Famega Syavira. “Papua: Cara kerja jaringan bot penyebar hoaks soal Papua dengan biaya miliaran rupiah.” BBC, 9 October 2019. https://www.bbc.com/indonesia/indonesia-49969337

[26] Strick, Benjamin. “Investigating Information Operations in West Papua: A Digital Forensic Case Study of Cross-Platform Network Analysis.” Belling Cat, 11 October 2019. https://www.bellingcat.com/news/rest-of-world/2019/10/11/investigating-information-operations-in-west-papua-a-digital-forensic-case-study-of-cross-platform-network-analysis/

[27] For more on demonstrations see Mambor, Victor, and Jakob Siringoringo. “Indonesia.” The Indigenous World 2020, edited by Dwayne Mamo, 250-266. IWGIA, 2020. https://iwgia.org/images/yearbook/2020/IWGIA_The_Indigenous_World_2020.pdf

[28] Amnesty. “Seven Papuan PoCs Sentenced To Jail For Joining Peaceful Anti-Racism Protest.” 17 June 2020. https://www.amnesty.id/seven-papuan-pocs-sentenced-to-jail-for-joining-peaceful-anti-racism-protest/

[29] Aranditio, Stephanus, and Dwi Bowo Raharjo. “Persatuan Gereja Desak Jokowi Usut Tuntas Penembakan Pendeta Yeremia.” Suara, 21 September 2020. https://www.suara.com/news/2020/09/21/151130/persatuan-gereja-desak-jokowi-usut-tuntas-penembakan-pendeta-yeremia

[30] Jubi. “Papua Humanitarian report of Intan Jaya.” 19 September 2020.  https://jubi.co.id/laporan-tim-kemanusiaan-intan-jaya-duka-dari-hitadipa/

[31] West Papua Daily. “Intan Jaya conflict (2): Civilians become victims of TNI-TPNPB war.” 29 January 2021. https://en.jubi.co.id/intan-jaya-conflict-2-civilians-victims-of-tni-tpnpb/

[32] Lantipo, Yuliana. “Diadang sekelompok orang, tim RDP Otsus Papua tertahan di Bandara Wamena.” Jubi, 15 November 2020. https://jubi.co.id/diadang-sekelompok-orang-tim-rdp-otsus-papua-tertahan-di-bandara-wamena/

[33] Adisubrata, Islami. “DAP: Tolak kedatangan MRP, negara cederai wajah sendiri.” Jubi, 16 November 2020. https://jubi.co.id/papua-tolak-mrp-negara-cederai-wajah-sendiri/



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